Structure and Bonding: The Carbon-Carbon Bond

The carbon-carbon bond is what helps bring variety to organic compounds, especially the hydrocarbons.  The hydrocarbons only contain hydrogen and carbon.

Measure and record the carbon-carbon bond distances (right click, select mouse click action, then click on distance) in the following molecules given below. 

ethane                        ethene                            ethyne

single bond                     double bond                     triple bond   

type of bond bond order occurs in bond energy (kJ/mole) bond length (pm)
single 1 alkanes 347  
double 2 alkenes 614  
triple 3 alkynes 839  

How does the bond length vary with bond order?

The energy required to break a mole of bonds is called the bond energy.  Which type of bond is the strongest?

How does the bond energy vary with bond length? 

What does bond length tell you about the strength of a bond?  Explain.

The structure of the decane, an alkane with a formula of C10H22, is given below.  How would you describe the chain?

Look at the two fatty acids, which are long chain carboxylic acids, that are found in fats.  What happens to the chain on addition of a double bond?

stearic acid                                        oleic acid

The Lewis dot structure of benzene, C6H6, implies alternating single and double bonds in the molecule.  The structure below illustrates this.  Measure the six bond lengths and decide on the overall bond order in the benzene molecule.  What does it imply about the bonding?

The benzene molecule has six equal bonds, each with a bond order of 1.5.  This gives benzene some unique properties which are explored in organic chemistry.

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