Format for Footnotes and Bibliographies

Based upon Kate Turabian's A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, 6th ed., 1996.

Note: Like the Chicago Manual of Style on which it is based, Turabian offers those in the natural and social sciences the option of using an author-date system with notes and parenthetical references. See chapters 10-11 of the Manual for details.

Type of Entry 

Footnote Form (first note)*

Bibliographic Form 

Book--single author

1. Neil Sheehan, A Bright Shining Lie: John Paul Vann and America in Vietnam (New York: Random House, 1988), 425.

Sheehan, Neil. A Bright Shining Lie:  

John Paul Vann and America 

in Vietnam. New York

Random House, 1988.

Book--multiple authors

2. John E. Schwarz and Thomas J. Volgy, The Forgotten American (New York: Norton, 1992), 42.

Schwarz, John E., and Thomas J. 

Volgy. The Forgotten 

American. New York

Norton, 1992.

Encyclopedia article

3. Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th ed., s.v. “cold war.”

None: “Well-known reference books are generally not listed in bibliographies” (8.112).

Newspaper article

4. “The Wrong Issue in Bosnia,” New York Times, 22 March 1996, sec. A, p. 26.

None: “News items from daily papers are rarely listed separately in a bibliography... If a newspaper is cited only once or twice, a sufficient” (11.44).

Magazine Article

5. David Ansen, “Spielberg's Obsession,” Newsweek, 20 December 1993, 112.

Ansen, David. “Spielberg's Obsession.” 

Newsweek, 20 December 1993


Journal article

6. Christopher Policano, “Dueling Colas,” Public Relations Journal 41, no. 11 (1985): 16.

Policano, Christopher. “Dueling Colas.” 

Public Relations Journal 41, 

no. 11 (1985): 16-17.

Article from online database

7. Patrick O'Driscoll, “Baggage Conveyor Takes Suitcase Taste Test,” Denver Post, 20 February 1994, B3, in LEXIS/NEXIS [database on-line], NEWS library, DPOST file; accessed May 13, 1996.

None: “News items from daily papers are rarely listed separately in a bibliography... If a newspaper is cited only once or twice, a sufficient” (11.44).

Article from online database

8. John R. McRae, “Buddhism,” Journal of Asian Studies 54, no. 2 (1995), in Periodical Abstracts Research [database on-line], UMI- Proquest, GALILEO; accessed May 13, 1996.


McRae, John R. “Buddhism.” Journal 

 of Asian Studies 54, no. 2 

(1995): 354-371. Periodical 

Abstracts Research. Database 

on-line. UMI-Proquest

GALILEO; accessed May 

13, 1996.

Document from CD-ROM

9. United Parcel Service, “1994 Report to Shareowners,” 31 December 1994, in LaserD [CD-ROM] (Bethesda, MD: Disclosure, 1995).

United Parcel Service. “1994 Report 

to Shareowners,” 31 December 

1994. LaserD. CD-ROM. 

Bethesda, MD: Disclosure, 1995. 

Internet/World WideWeb site

10. Federal Election Commission, “Receipts of 1996 Presidential Pre-Nomination Campaigns”; available from pres1b.jpg; Internet; accessed 13 May 1996.

Federal Election Commission. “Receipts 

of 1996 Presidential Pre-

Nomination Campaigns.” 

Available from http://www.fec.

gov.pres96/pres1b.jpg. Internet; 

accessed 13 May 1996.


* “The place in the text where a note is introduced, whether footnote or endnote, is marked with an arabic numeral typed slightly above the line (superscript)” (8.7). “Note numbers preceding the footnotes themselves are preferably typed on the line, followed by a period. If the computer system used generates footnotes with superscript numbers, however, that is also acceptable” (8.10).

Format for Additional Footnote References

“Once a work has been cited in complete form, later references to it are shortened. For this, either short titles or the Latin abbreviation ibid. (for ibidem, "in the same place") should be used” (8.84).

Use this form after the first full reference when there are nointervening references:

2. Ibid.

Use this form when there are no intervening references and the reference is to a different page in the same work:

3. Ibid., 68.

Use this form when there are intervening references between the first full reference and this one (book and article titles may be shortened):

12. Sheehan, Bright Shining Lie, 425.


13. Ansen, "Spielberg's Obsession," 116.