A) a lack of business talent in the South.
B) an unwillingness on the part of the southerners to take risks.
C) a set of values distinctive to the South that discouraged the growth of cities and industry.
D) a slave labor force that could not work successfully in industry.
A) invention of the cotton gin.
B) shift of economic power from the "upper South" to the "lower South."
C) increased agricultural diversity of the region.
D) decline in the price of slaves.
A) western rice.
B) tobacco in Kentucky.
C) Louisiana sugar.
D) short-staple cotton in the Black Belt.
A) a primarily rural and agricultural region
B) increasingly unlike the North and increasingly sensitive to criticism.
C) a region where political power rested in the hands of small farmers.
D) more urban and more industrialized.
A) and nonslaveholders dominated the political system in the region.
B) but the slaveholding planters exercised power and influence far in excess of their numbers.
C) so slavery was not very important in the lives of most whites.
D) and most whites were happy with it that way.
A) most of its land was owned by outside interests.
B) it employed slave labor.
C) it produced raw materials and purchased finished products.
D) had little political power.
A) mostly horsebreeders.
B) really a rough-and-tumble group of people.
C) genteel aristocrats.
D) successful agricultural businessmen.
A) mirrored that of the North.
B) resulted in the adoption of elaborate code of chivalry.
C) had little to do with slavery.
D) did not extend to the practice of dueling.
A) less subordinate to men than in the North.
B) relatively isolated from people outside their own families.
C) better educated than their northern counterparts.
D) more likely to engage in public activities or income-producing employment than their northern counterparts.
A) a planter with many slaves and a lot of land.
B) a small-town merchant or professional man.
C) extremely poor.
D) a modest yeoman farmer.
A) it controlled the slaves.
B) they had economic ties to it.
C) slaveholder and nonslaveholder were often related.
D) all of the above.
A) An adequate if rough diet.
B) Hard work, even for women and children.
C) The freedom to use the time after work as they wished to.
D) Isolation and control.
A) imposed a uniformly harsh and dismal regime for southern slaves.
B) allowed slaves a great deal of flexibility and autonomy.
C) created a paternal and benevolent relationship between master and slave.
D) contained rigid provisions but were unevenly enforced.
A) masters supervised workers personally and often worked alongside them.
B) they had more opportunities for privacy and for a social world of their own.
C) masters seemed more concerned with their health and welfare.
D) the work was lighter and provisions were more abundant.
A) Most of the slaveowners owned more than ten slaves.
B) Most of the slaves lived on farms with less than ten slaves.
C) The majority of slaveowners were small farmers, but the majority of slaves lived on plantations of medium or large size.
D) The majority of slaveowners lived on medium or large plantations, but most slaves lived and worked on small farms.
A) armed revolts.
B) petty thievery.
C) work slowdowns.
D) running away.
A) primarily to entertain whites.
B) solely as a means of entertaining themselves.
C) that was influenced heavily by American music.
D) as a means of expressing their dreams and frustrations.
A) was condoned by the masters.
B) emphasized deliverance in the next world.
C) sometimes combined Christianity with traditional African religions.
D) primarily occurred under the guidance of white ministers.
A) the difficulty in researching a field in which few documents exist.
B) the extent to which historians are influenced by the times in which they write.
C) basic agreement that slavery was a brutal, savage institution that dehumanized all participants.
D) that black slaves in the South were generally content and happy with their lot.
A) slave families were better treated and lived in greater comfort than did northern industrial workers.
B) the black family survived slavery with impressive strength.
C) slavery destroyed the significance of the father in the black family.
D) slaves were unable to establish strong family ties.
A) Gabriel Prosser.
B) Denmark Vesey.
C) Nat Turner.
D) Frederick Douglass.
A) revealed a passive contentment with bondage.
B) produced a rich and complex culture in support of racial pride and unity.
C) undermined black conversion to Christianity.
D) resulted in the loss of all cultural elements of African life.
A) consistently operated on the model of the "nuclear family."
B) condemned premarital pregnancies.
C) generally lived on a single plantation.
D) did not place much emphasis on extended kinship networks.
A) an optimistic faith in human nature.
B) a rational view of man and his ability.
C) a desire for control and order.
D) both a and c.
A) painted scenes of carefully cultivated landscapes.
B) favored portraits of Revolutionary War heroes.
C) considered untamed nature the best source of spiritual inspiration.
D) had a different philosophy from Emerson and Thoreau.
A) Walt Whitman.
B) James Fenimore Cooper.
C) Herman Melville.
D) Ralph Waldo Emerson.
A) "understanding" was more important than "reason."
B) man should repress instinct and strive for externally imposed learning.
C) each individual should strive to "transcend" the limits of intellect and allow emotions to create an "original relation to the universe."
D) individuals should avoid anything that would bring one too close to the natural world.
A) not pay poll taxes.
B) refuse to obey unjust laws.
C) live in isolation and as simply as possible.
D) reject the artificial constraints of government.
A) attracted tens of thousands of followers during the antebellum period.
B) had a consistent supporter in Nathaniel Hawthorne.
C) operated primarily in the South.
D) struggled to meet both individual needs and the demands of the communal society.
A) advocated "free love" to redefine gender roles.
B) called for celibacy and attracted members of conversion.
C) believed it liberated women from the demands of male "lust" and from traditional bonds of family.
D) was widely accepted and had almost no critics.
A) a strong antislavery bias.
B) a celebration of individual liberty.
C) a desire to improve the status of women.
D) a belief in human perfectibility.
B) education and rehabilitation.
C) women's rights.
B) water cures
C) reforms promulgated by city health boards to cure epidemics.
D) dietary theories.
A) focused on teaching children the values of order and discipline.
B) stressed educational equality.
C) focused on external learning.
D) stressed the importance of community.
A) was only for the mentally ill.
B) was only for criminals.
C) attempted to rehabilitate "unfit" people into useful citizens.
D) was simply an attempt to curb the abuses of the old methods of dealing with the poor and the ill.
A) withdrawing from the movements.
B) accepting the notion that men and women were assigned separate "spheres" in society.
C) focusing their attention on religious matters.
D) setting in motion the first important feminist movement.
A) extend and protect democracy.
B) raise questions and criticisms of authority.
C) expand individual opportunities.
D) inculcate values of thrift, order, discipline, and punctuality.
B) women's rights.
A) Ralph Waldo Emerson.
B) William Lloyd Garrison.
C) Frederick Douglass.
D) Joseph Smith.
A) abolitionists were dangerous radicals.
B) the movement would lead to a war between North and South.
C) the movement would lead to a great influx of free blacks into the North.
D) all the above.
A) moderate antislavery forces.
B) Garrison and his followers.
C) southern antislavery planters.
D) black abolitionists.
A) allowed masters to claim slaves who ran away to the North.
B) freed slaves who escaped to states in the Old Northwest.
C) forbade state officials to assist in the capture and return of runaways.
D) outlawed the interstate slave trade.
A) personal liberty movement.
B) free-soil movement.
C) John Brown Brigade.
D) Garrison solution.
A) enjoyed full access to education and most career opportunities.
B) voted and held government jobs proportionate to their numbers.
C) defended their freedom and responded eagerly to the cause of abolitionism.
D) earned a decent standard of living.
A) punish the inmates.
B) get the deviants out of society.
C) reform and rehabilitate the inmates.
D) cut down the cost of crime and punishment.
A) united the North and South with a common feeling of nationalism.
B) divided the North and the South over the issue of slavery in the territories.
C) eliminated the need for debate over the issue of slavery.
D) facilitated effective compromises over the increasingly divisive issue of slavery.
A) all of the nation's current territory.
B) the entire territory of the current continental United States.
C) nearly the entire territory of the current continental United States.
D) the entire continental United States east of the Rockies.
A) Manifest Destiny.
B) divine right.
C) white supremacy.
A) the American government quickly agreed.
B) Americans in the North opposed acquiring a large new slave territory.
C) Southerners, led by President Jackson, pushed for annexation.
D) Mexico gave up all claims to Texas.
A) did not outnumber the British until after the Civil War.
B) had little impact on the few Native Americans there.
C) outnumbered the British by 1850.
D) were mostly fur trappers.
A) hostile Indians.
C) mountain and desert terrain.
A) Sending troops to the Nueces River in Texas.
B) Informing Americans in California that the United States would respond sympathetically to a revolt against Mexico.
C) Instructing the Pacific naval commander to seize California ports if Mexico declared war.
D) Ceasing all diplomatic contact with Mexico.
A) start a war with Mexico and Great Britain.
B) attract John Tyler to the Democratic Party.
C) divert attention from the slavery issue.
D) appeal to both northern and southern expansionists.
A) experienced significantly higher death rates than the general population.
B) experienced constant and deadly attacks by Indian tribes along the trail.
C) was a highly individualized experience.
D) often migrated as families that practiced traditional gender divisions of labor.
A) by southerners who believed Polk deliberately maneuvered the country into the conflict on behalf of northern interests.
B) by northerners who believed it was part of a slaveholders' plot to bring in more slave states.
C) by businessmen who believed it would hurt commerce with England and Mexico.
D) by Democrats from all sections of the nation.
A) went into law without the president's signature.
B) passed the House but not the Senate.
C) was a compromise acceptable to the South and the North but not the West.
D) drew very little attention outside of Congress.
A) John C. Fremont.
B) John A. Sutter.
C) Nicholas Trist.
D) Lewis Cass.
A) California would come in as a free state.
B) in the rest of the lands acquired from Mexico, territorial governments would be formed without restrictions on slavery.
C) the national government would not pay the Texas debt.
D) the slave trade, but not slavery, would be abolished in the District of Columbia.
A) Henry Clay.
B) Zachary Taylor.
C) John C. Calhoun.
D) Daniel Webster.
A) less able politicians.
B) more concerned with narrow interest of self-promotion.
C) as skilled at compromise as the older leaders.
D) interested in broad national issues.
A) was a movement to garner support for abolition among the youth of America.
B) was a movement to garner support for slavery among the youth of America.
C) was intended to divert young Americans' interests toward nationalism and expansion and away from the "transitory" issue of slavery.
D) was part of President Franklin Pierce's efforts to further expand the nation's territories to pacify the slavery interests.
A) of the question of whether they would be slave or free states.
B) of southern fear that a transcontinental railroad would be built through them.
C) of northern concern over new wheat states and depressed grain prices.
D) many believed that they could never support a population sufficient to justify statehood.
A) slavery was dangerous not because of what it did to blacks but because of what it did to whites.
B) slavery opened the door to economic opportunity for whites.
C) slavery was what made the South a glorious civilization and one that should be admired.
D) slave labor would work in northern factories and should be allowed to expand.
A) use state authority to interfere with the deportation of fugitive slaves.
B) force industries to recognize labor unions.
C) allow women to own property.
D) extend the right to vote to all tax-paying adults.
A) slavery was good for blacks.
B) slavery was maintained, even though it was not profitable for whites.
C) northern factory workers were better off than slaves, but they deserved to be because they were white.
D) blacks were not biologically inferior, they just needed time to catch up culturally.
A) international pressure was put on President Pierce.
B) there was little nationalism in the nation by the 1850s.
C) antislavery forces in the North opposed it.
D) it was believed we had more territory than we could use.
A) affirmed the South's argument that the Constitution guaranteed the existence of slavery.
B) was a victory for the antislavery movement.
C) declared Scott a free man.
D) outlawed the interstate slave trade.
A) believed slavery was morally wrong but was not an abolitionist.
B) had been a Democrat before he became a Republican.
C) believed the expansion of slavery would hurt the spread of free labor.
D) tried to avoid the slavery issue in his debates with Douglas.
E) both a and c.
F) both a and d.
A) was the only thing holding the nation together.
B) still focused on the issues that had created the "second party system."
C) had reduced slavery to a minor issue.
D) accentuated rather than muted regional controversy.
A) in the lower South.
B) the states where the largest concentration of slaves were located.
C) the home of the most outspoken "fire eaters."
D) all of the above.
A) No state has the right to secede from the Union.
B) The federal government has no authority to stop a state from seceding from the nation.
C) Federal troops should be called out to stop secession.
D) Secession was a legal act.
E) Both a and b.
F) Both a and c.
A) President Lincoln resupplied the federal troops in time to avoid an armed conflict.
B) Major Anderson managed to withstand the bombardment of the Confederates and keep the Fort in Union hands.
C) the Confederates fired the first shot of the Civil War.
D) the Union Army fired the first shots of the war.
A) All the important material advantages lay with the North.
B) The South had the active support of England.
C) Southern industry was sufficient to conduct a war.
D) The Union was prepared for a long war.
A) It would be fighting, for the most part, a defensive war.
B) Most of the white population of the South supported the war.
C) Northern opinion on the war was divided.
D) All of the above.
A) whether the slaves contributed to the Northern victory.
B) whether it was an irrepressible conflict.
C) whether it was really fought over the issue of slavery.
D) whether the failure of the party system caused the war.
A) occurred when Irish strikebreakers were attacked by New York longshoreman.
B) led to the deaths of 1000 people.
C) included lynchings of a number of African Americans.
D) ended the use of conscription as a means of gaining new soldiers for the Union army.
A) A new National Bank Act.
B) Increased taxes on almost all goods and services.
C) Higher tariffs.
D) Hard money policies requiring all payments in gold or silver.
A) Sending troops into battle without asking for a declaration of war.
B) Increasing the size of the regular army.
C) Putting diplomatic pressure on England not to recognize the Confederacy.
D) Unilaterally proclaiming a naval blockade of the South.
A) did not become involved in the conflict.
B) tried to get the men they knew to stay home.
C) entered nursing, a field previously dominated by men.
D) did work at home but made no contribution to the needs of employers for additional labor.
A) in the North as well as the South.
B) in areas of the Confederacy except those already under Union control.
C) and offered compensation to the masters in slave states that remained loyal to the Union.
D) in the South but offered to return them to masters who declared their loyalty to the Union.
A) refused to use African American soldiers in any capacity.
B) refused to use African American soldiers in combat positions.
C) had a higher mortality rate for black soldiers than white soldiers.
D) paid black and white soldiers equally.
A) an income tax.
B) requisitions from the staples.
C) paper money.
D) tariffs on imported goods.
A) the doctrine of state's rights.
B) the difference of opinion over the war.
C) the question of whether to use slaves in combat.
D) over "King Cotton diplomacy."
A) recognition that women could do men's work and the opening of more employment opportunities.
B) elevation in status they enjoyed when the slaves were freed.
C) decimation of the male population and the creation of a major sexual imbalance in the region.
D) the loss of status when the slaves were freed.
A) Unenfranchised classes.
B) Ruling classes.
D) English manufacturers.
A) it meant that England might aid the South.
B) it meant that the two sides in the conflict were of equal stature.
C) the South could easily get English loans.
D) such a declaration usually led to diplomatic recognition.
B) the Seven Days.
C) First Bull Run.
D) Wilson's Creek.
A) find supplies for the Union armies in Virginia.
B) free the slaves in central Georgia.
C) get Lincoln reelected.
D) break the will of the Southern people.
A) enabled the South to get all the war material it needed from Europe.
B) worked for most of the war.
C) was a failure.
D) worked for the North.