HST 141                           Quiz 3 Study Guide: Chapters 8, 9, & 10                          Dr. Kerns

 

Chapter 8 

 

  1. The Missouri crisis stood in sharp contrast to the general tone of the nation at the time because:

A)    it resulted in a compromise between slave and free interests at a time when these powers were locked in permanent conflict.

B)     it went against the general feelings of unity and nationalism prevalent in the nation at the time.

C)    it represented a significant bump in the otherwise smooth process of western settlement.

D)    it led to calls for colonization of slaves at a time when support for emancipation was growing quickly.

 

  1. The Second National Bank of the United States:

A)    forbid state banks from issuing currency.

B)     could not gain control of the industry away from state banks.

C)    was essentially the same institution supported by Alexander Hamilton a generation before.

D)    encountered strong opposition to its charter in Congress.

 

  1. Which of the following did not occur after the War of 1812?

A)    Commerce revived and expanded.

B)     An economic boom was followed by a disastrous bust.

C)    All banking was left to the states.

D)    Westward expansion accelerated dramatically.

 

  1. After peace was restored, "infant industries" that prospered during the war:

A)    were strong enough to withstand British competition.

B)     expanded into foreign markets.

C)    were competitive with foreign markets.

D)    demanded that the government protect them from foreign competition.

 

  1. After the war, the nation's most pressing economic need was:

A)    access to foreign markets that were not open to our commerce.

B)     a trained labor force to work in complex industries.

C)    a transportation system that would provide manufacturers access to raw materials and markets.

D)    a system by which worn-out soil could be reclaimed.

 

  1. The second Bank of the United States could deal with the nation's currency problem by:

A)    prohibiting state banks from issuing notes.

B)     using its size and power to compel state banks to issue sound notes or go out of business.

C)    using only gold and silver as currency.

D)    dealing only with major land speculators.

 

  1. According to "nationalists" in the government, "internal improvements" should be financed by:

A)    a series of local, internal improvement taxes.

B)     the national government.

C)    the states in which the "improvements" are made.

D)    private investments.

 

  1. The American "mountain men":

A)    refused to consort with Mexican or Indian women.

B)     were closely tied to the expanding market economy of the United States.

C)    generally got to keep the bulk of their profits.

D)    established towns and villages to escape the isolation of the frontier.

 

  1. The administration of President James Monroe was called the "Era of Good Feelings" because:

A)    it was a time of few factional disputes and partisan divisions.

B)     there were no economic depressions.

C)    most Americans were content to remain where they were.

D)    the national bank successfully managed the economy.

 

  1. The addition of Florida to the nation was due largely to:

A)    the military conquests of Andrew Jackson within the territory.

B)     the Missouri Compromise.

C)    the American cession of California to Spain.

D)    the debts of the Spanish government.

 

  1. The Black Belt was:

A)    the area where most blacks were settled.

B)     an area of dark, rotted limestone soil that was excellent for cotton.

C)    a burned-over region in upstate New York.

D)    the dark swamps of southern Georgia and northern Florida.

 

  1. In the American mind of the 1820s the far west was seen as:

A)    a great desert.

B)     a wooded region like the Northeast.

C)    a paradise on earth.

D)    rich farmland ready to be settled.

 

  1. The Panic of 1819:

A)    brought a halt to western expansion for decades.

B)     convinced the West that the national bank was a sound institution.

C)    did little to change American attitudes toward growth and expansion.

D)    removed the national bank as a political issue.

 

 

 

  1. The Missouri crisis, which was settled by a compromise in 1820, was significant because it was a sign of sectional crisis and because it:

A)    revealed how strong pro-slavery attitudes were.

B)     revealed how deep anti-slavery attitudes were.

C)    stood in such sharp contrast to the rising American nationalism of the 1820s.

D)    involved most of the major politicians of the day.

 

  1. John Marshall's influence on the Supreme Court was so great that he:

A)    was able to get whomever he wanted appointed to the bench.

B)     more than anyone other than the framers themselves, molded the development of the Constitution.

C)    was able to ignore the other justices.

D)    could singlehandedly overturn acts of Congress.

 

  1. The lasting significance of Gibbons v. Ogden was that it:

A)    opened the way for steamboat travel on the Mississippi.

B)     confirmed the state's right to regulate commerce.

C)    made peace between the court and the Adams administration.

D)    freed transportation systems from restraints by the states.

 

  1. The Decisions of the Marshall Court:

A)    established the primacy of the federal government in regulating the economy

B)     gave strength to the doctrine of states rights

C)    destroyed what was left of Hamiltonian federalism

D)    opened the way for an increased federal role in promoting economic growth.

E)     achieved a and d.

F)     achieved b and c.

 

  1. In its rulings concerning the Indian tribes, the Marshall Court held that:

A)    the national government, not the states, had authority.

B)     Indians were citizens like everyone else.

C)    Indians had the same status as slaves.

D)    tribal lands belong to the states.

 

  1. The Monroe Doctrine:

A)    allowed the United States to invade Latin American countries.

B)     established American preeminence in the Western hemisphere.

C)    was completely divorced from American foreign policies in Europe.

D)    had nothing to do with American domestic policies.

 

  1. The charge of a "corrupt bargain" was raised when:

A)    Clay supported Adams for the presidency and was appointed secretary of state.

B)     Jackson promised to reward his supporters if he won.

C)    Adams won with the support of southern planters.

D)    the Republican caucus threw its support to Adams.

 

  1. Adams's nationalistic program, which was a lot like Clay's American System, was not funded because:

A)    the nation could not afford it.

B)     business opposed it.

C)    western interests opposed it.

D)    Jackson's supporters in Congress voted against it.

 

  1. In his victory in 1828, Jackson drew his greatest support from the:

A)    South and the West.

B)     New England region and the Southeast.

C)    Middle Atlantic states and the Old Northwest.

D)    South and the Middle Atlantic states.

 

Chapter 9

  1. The goal of the Jacksonians was to:

A)    redistribute the wealth of the nation.

B)     reduce the influence of southern planters.

C)    ensure that people could rise to prominence on the basis of their own talents and energies.

D)    put as many of their own people in office as possible.

 

  1. During the Jacksonian era, the number of voters:

A)    increased at a more rapid pace that did the population as a whole.

B)     increased at a slower pace than in the previous decade.

C)    actually decreased as a percentage of the population.

D)    remained stable.

 

  1. The most significant change regarding "party" to take place in the Jacksonian era was the:

A)    recognition of the value of "third parties."

B)     view that institutionalized parties were a desirable part of the political process.

C)    view that party leaders should be presidential candidates.

D)    emergence of a hard core of party loyalists who picked all candidates for national office.

 

  1. Which of the following did Jackson and the Jacksonians not attack?

A)    A "class" of permanent officeholders.

B)     The system by which presidential candidates were selected.

C)    The "spoils system."

D)    The party caucus.

 

  1. Which of the following was not a democratic reform of the age of Jackson?

A)    Adoption of the national nominating convention for the selection of presidential candidates.

B)     Adoption of the secret ballot.

C)    Popular election of presidential electors in most states.

D)    Removal by most states of property and taxation requirements for voting.

 

  1. Historians of the Jacksonian era:

A)    have focused primarily on his opposition to slavery.

B)     have debated whether he was really a supporter of the "common man."

C)    have dismissed the idea of a "market revolution."

D)    have emphasized his compassion for the Indians.

 

  1. The South Carolina Exposition and Protest condemned as unconstitutional the:

A)    recharter of the national bank.

B)     Maysville Road Bill.

C)    Indian Removal Act.

D)    "tariff of abominations."

 

  1. John C. Calhoun advanced the theory of nullification as:

A)    a moderate alternative to secession.

B)     a means of making the national government secondary to the states.

C)    a concession to western interests.

D)    a way to force Congress to pass a protective tariff.

 

  1. The most significant result of the Eaton affair was that:

A)    John C. Calhoun became the leader of the Kitchen Cabinet.

B)     it led to the Webster-Hayne debate.

C)    Martin Van Buren emerged as Jackson's choice to succeed him.

D)    John Eaton became Jackson's secretary of state.

 

  1. Robert Y. Hayne supported the continued sale of western lands in an effort to:

A)    aid the expansion of slavery.

B)     help finance internal improvements.

C)    add to the deposits in the National Bank.

D)    get western support for efforts to reduce the tariff.

 

  1. Daniel Webster's "Second Reply to Hayne" was made in an attempt to:

A)    refute Calhoun's theory of nullification.

B)     affirm the integrity of nullification.

C)    support the sale of western lands.

D)    both a and b

E)     both b and c

 

  1. The "force bill" of 1832:

A)    authorized the president to use force to see that acts of Congress were obeyed.

B)     forced Jackson to stand up to Calhoun.

C)    forced the president to consult Congress if he planned to use troops against South Carolina.

D)    made it impossible for other southern states to nullify laws.

 

 

  1. The Black Hawk War:

A)    was notable for the cruel treatment of white settlers by Indians.

B)     saw the Sauk and Foxes temporarily regain control of part of Western Illinois.

C)    was over before Jackson entered the White House.

D)    occurred because Black Hawk and his followers refused to recognize a treaty by which they ceded their lands to the U.S.

 

  1. The "Five Civilized Tribes" were the:

A)    Cherokee, Creek, Seminole, Chickasaw, and Choctaw.

B)     Cherokee, Cahaba, Iroquios, Mohawk, and Pequot.

C)    Cherokee, Creek, Miami, Mowa, and Iroquios.

D)    Creek, Seminole, Choctaw, Cahaba, and Pequot.

 

  1. The Cherokees were supported in their unsuccessful battle against removal by:

A)    President Jackson.

B)     the Supreme Court.

C)    Congress.

D)    the state of Georgia.

 

  1. The Seminoles:

A)    were never completely removed from their lands in Florida.

B)     were removed after a long military struggle with the U.S. Army.

C)    lost 1/3 of their tribe on the "Trail of Tears."

D)    managed to kill 100 American soldiers before they surrendered.

 

  1. When the Indian removal was completed:

A)    every Indian west of the Mississippi River was gone.

B)     only elements of the Seminoles and Cherokees remained.

C)    the Indians were relocated in reservations much like the tribal lands they left.

D)    the Indians were far enough removed from whites where they would not face further encroachments.

 

  1. Under Nicholas Biddle, the national bank:

A)    withheld credit from new businesses.

B)     restrained less well managed state banks.

C)    did little general banking business.

D)    operated solely from its Philadelphia headquarters.

 

  1. The national bank was supported by:

A)    "hard-money" advocates.

B)     "soft-money" advocates.

C)    western farmers.

D)    eastern business interests.

 

 

 

  1. Determined to reduce the Bank's power even before its charter expired, Jackson:

A)    fired most of its officials, including Biddle.

B)     removed government deposits from the Bank.

C)    removed government deposits from state banks.

D)    exposed the high officials who had been borrowing from the Bank.

 

  1. After the Panic of 1837 the Democrats' efforts to produce a new financial system resulted in the creation of:

A)    a third national bank.

B)     the "independent treasury" or "subtreasury" system.

C)    a system without state banks.

D)    a system where only gold was used as currency.

 

  1. The campaign of 1840:

A)    was the last presidential campaign before newspapers carried the events of the contest to a large audience.

B)     featured a protégé of Jackson's who proved unable to convince the electorate that he was a supporter of the "common man."

C)    emphasized the philosophical purity of the respective parties.

D)    featured a candidate who had actually grown up in a log cabin.

 

  1. The penny press:

A)    originated in Boston.

B)     focused on hard news stories to attract a new audience.

C)    took years to become successful.

D)    did not use banner headlines to attract a readership.

 

  1. Roger B. Taney's tenure as chief justice:

A)    marked a sharp break with the Marshall Court in constitutional interpretation.

B)     was little more than an extension of the Marshall Court.

C)    helped modify Marshall's vigorous nationalism.

D)    was greatly influenced by the views of John C. Calhoun.

 

  1. The Whig Party:

A)    favored expanding the power of the federal government.

B)     encouraged industrial and commercial development.

C)    advocated knitting the country together into a consolidated economic system.

D)    did all of the above.

E)     did none of the above.

 

Chapter 10

  1. The American population between 1820 and 1840:

A)    grew fastest in the South.

B)     became increasingly rural.

C)    was migrating westward.

D)    was not growing as fast as the population of Europe.

 

 

  1. The rise of New York City in the first half of the nineteenth century was the result of all of the following except:

A)    a superior natural harbor.

B)     liberal state laws that made the city attractive for both foreign and domestic commerce.

C)    an absence of "nativist" sentiment.

D)    unrivaled access to the interior.

 

  1. At the time it was completed, the Erie Canal was:

A)    already obsolete.

B)     beginning to fill with silt from the Great Lakes.

C)    the greatest construction project Americans had ever undertaken.

D)    cited as an example of how not to construct a canal.

 

  1. Which of the following helped enlarge the urban population in this era?

A)    Immigrants from Europe.

B)     Northeast farmers.

C)    The growth of the population as a whole.

D)    All of the above.

E)     Both a and c.

 

  1. The nativist movement wanted to:

A)    return all land to Native Americans.

B)     enact more restrictive naturalization laws.

C)    increase aid to education so voters would be literate.

D)    make immigrants feel this was their home.

 

  1. One of the immediate results of the new transportation routes constructed during the "canal age" was:

A)    an increased white settlement in the Northwest.

B)     an increased white settlement in the Southwest.

C)    the renewed cooperation between states and the national environment on internal improvement projects.

D)    the conviction that the national government should be responsible for all internal improvements.

 

  1. During the 1820s and 1830s, railroads:

A)    played only a secondary role in the nation's transportation system.

B)     replaced canals as the most important means of transportation.

C)    generated little interest among American businessmen.

D)    consisted of a few long lines, which were not connected to water routes.

 

 

 

  1. The most profound economic development in mid-nineteenth-century America was the:

A)    development of a national banking system.

B)     creation of corporations.

C)    decline of the small-town merchant and general store.

D)    rise of the factory.

 

  1. The telegraph:

A)    was expensive to use and thus offered limited advantages for American industry.

B)     slowly developed as a tool for commerce in the United States.

C)    was first used to announce the victory of James K. Polk in the presidential election of 1844.

D)    was invented in just a week by Samuel F.B. Morse.

 

  1. The great technical advances in American industry owed much to:

A)    American inventors.

B)     national research universities.

C)    innovative businessmen.

D)    labor unions.

 

  1. The beginnings of an industrial labor supply can be traced to:

A)    overcrowding in American cities.

B)     a dramatic increase in food production.

C)    the use of slaves in manufacturing industries.

D)    an increase in European immigration.

 

  1. The Lowell or Waltham system of recruiting labor was to:

A)    enlist young women from farm families.

B)     recruit whole families from rural areas.

C)    recruit newly arrived immigrants.

D)    enlist young men from farm families.

 

  1. The paternalistic factory system of Lowell and Waltham did not last long because:

A)    workers resented being watched over so carefully.

B)     in the highly competitive textile market, manufacturers were eager to cut labor costs.

C)    unions undermined the owners' authority.

D)    men found jobs in the factories, and they disliked the paternalistic system.

 

  1. Most of the industrial growth experienced in the United States between 1840 and 1860 took place in the:

A)    South and Southwest

B)     Old Northwest.

C)    New England region and the mid-Atlantic states.

D)    Ohio Valley.

 

 

  1. Artisan workers:

A)    successfully made the transition to factory work.

B)     created the nation's earliest trade unions.

C)    had abandoned the republican vision of American work.

D)    allied themselves with the new capitalist class.

 

  1. Which of the following was not a technological advance that sped the growth of industry during this period?

A)    Better machine tools.

B)     Interchangeable tools.

C)    Improved water-power generators.

D)    New steam engines.

 

  1. The railroad network that developed during this period linked:

A)    the Northeast to the Northwest.

B)     the Northeast to the Gulf Coast.

C)    the East Coast to the West Coast.

D)    New York to New Orleans.

 

  1. Crucial to the operation of railroads was:

A)    a system of federal railroad regulations.

B)     the invention of the telegraph.

C)    slave labor to build the lines.

D)    a canal and river system that supported the lines.

 

  1. Which of the following did not inhibit the growth of effective labor resistance?

A)    Ethnic divisions between natives and immigrants.

B)     The availability of cheap labor.

C)    Slavery.

D)    The strength of the industrial capitalists.

 

  1. Why did the unequal distribution of wealth not create more resentment?

A)    The actual living standard of the workers was improving.

B)     There was no social mobility, but people were content to stay where they were in the social system.

C)    Geographic mobility was limited, so there were few other opportunities.

D)    The political system offered few ways to express resentment.

 

  1. In the middle-class family during this era, the role of women changed from:

A)    helpmate to workmate.

B)     republican mother" to "democratic female."

C)    passive domestic to radical feminist.

D)    champion of "domestic virtue"

 

 

 

  1. Shakespeare's plays:

A)    were generally viewed as entertainment for the nation's elite classes.

B)     led to a riot at the Astor Place Opera House.

C)    were not particularly enjoyed by antebellum Americans.

D)    were played before quiet, respectful audiences in American cities.

 

  1. The growth of the agricultural economy of the Northwest affected the sectional alignment of the United States because:

A)    northwestern goods were sold to residents of the Northeast.

B)     northeastern industry sold its products to the Northwest.

C)    northwestern grain was sold to the South, which allowed it to grow more cotton.

D)    the Northwest was able to feed itself so it did not align with any other section.

E)     both a and b.