HST 143 Quiz 3 Study Guide: Chapters 22, 23, and 24 Dr. Kerns
1. The Seventeenth Amendment to the United States Constitution allowed for:
A) prohibition of the sale and distribution of all alcoholic beverages.
B) the right of women to vote.
C) direct election of senators.
D) a national income tax.
2. As a reformer, Theodore Roosevelt:
A) rebelled against the leaders of his party.
B) became an advocate of radical change.
C) became an advocate of cautious, moderate change.
D) became an opponent of Progressive reform.
3. The outcome of the government's case against the Northern Securities Company in 1904 was that:
A) Theodore Roosevelt gave up the attempt to bust the trusts.
B) this railroad monopoly was ordered to be dissolved.
C) the Sherman Antitrust Act was declared unconstitutional.
D) the Sherman Antitrust Act was ruled inapplicable in this case.
4. The expression "square deal," as used by Theodore Roosevelt, meant that the federal government would:
A) combat racial injustice.
B) provide jobs for everyone.
C) be favorable to labor unions.
D) treat all interests impartially.
5. With respect to government-controlled public lands, Roosevelt generally favored:
A) absolute preservation in their natural states.
B) leasing for unrestricted private exploitation.
C) conservation with carefully managed development.
D) outright sale to private developers who could use the land in any way they wished.
6. The central issue in the Pinchot-Ballinger controversy was:
A) the tariff.
C) trust busting.
D) the right of labor to bargain collectively.
7. The New Nationalism of Theodore Roosevelt called for:
A) strengthening the regulatory powers of the federal government.
B) returning to the laissez-faire principles of the late nineteenth century.
C) investing the states with the largest responsibility for controlling the trusts and regulating industry.
D) a vigorous program of trust busting to restore free competition and thus obviate the need for government regulation.
8. President Taft:
A) was able to maintain the support of both the progressive and conservative wings of the Republican party.
B) actively worked to push lower tariff rates through a reluctant Congress.
C) had difficulty gaining election to the White House, even as Roosevelt's handpicked successor.
D) left office as the most decisively defeated president of the twentieth century.
9. The New Freedom of Woodrow Wilson called for:
A) strengthening regulatory powers of the federal government.
B) returning to laissez-faire principles of the late nineteenth century.
C) investing the states with large responsibility for controlling trusts and regulating industry.
D) a vigorous program of trust busting to restore free competition.
10. In the election of 1912, the Progressive party was known by the nickname:
A) Bull Mmoose.
D) teddy bear.
11. The effect of the Progressive Party's entrance into the presidential election of 1912 was to:
A) make no difference whatsoever in the outcome.
B) split the Republican vote and allow the Democrat to win.
C) split the Democratic vote and allow the Republican to win.
D) prevent any of the three parties from gaining a majority in the electoral college.
12. The Underwood-Simmons tariff, one of the first major pieces of legislation passed in Wilson's administration, was significant in that it:
A) was passed over the president's veto.
B) caused a major split in the Democratic party.
C) substantially lowered the tariff and enacted an income tax.
D) actually raised average rates, although called a reform measure.
13. An important feature of the Federal Reserve Act of 1913 was that it:
A) made the recurrence of a major depression impossible.
B) provided for a more elastic currency in the form of Federal Reserve notes.
C) required all banks in the nation to become members of the Federal Reserve system.
D) established a central bank in which individuals could safely deposit their savings.
14. One of the most important functions of the Federal Trade Commission was to:
A) bust trusts.
B) promote American exports.
C) guarantee the rights of labor.
D) regulate businesses and prevent unfair trade practices.
15. Although Wilson had campaigned in 1912 on the principles of the New Freedom, in practice his first term went far toward enacting key principles of the:
A) New Deal.
B) New Nationalism.
C) western conservationists.
D) Republican Old Guard.
16. In 1916, Congress passed the Keating-Owen Act to regulate child labor. Congress attempted to justify this legislation under its power to:
B) promote the general welfare.
C) regulate interstate commerce.
D) protect the health and safety of all citizens.
17. Theodore Roosevelt's mediation was important at the Portsmouth peace conference of 1905, which:
A) ended the Sino-Japanese War.
B) ended the Russo-Japanese War.
C) settled the Franco-German dispute over Morocco.
D) settled the Venezuela boundary dispute with Great Britain.
18. The aphorism "Speak softly and carry a big stick" was used by Roosevelt in reference to his:
A) foreign policy.
B) policy toward labor unions.
C) technique when on safari in Africa.
D) political strategy toward the Democrats.
19. Roosevelt based his distinction between "civilized" and "uncivilized" countries on:
A) race alone.
B) economic development alone.
C) both race and economic development.
D) both race and military development.
20. The main purpose of the Roosevelt corollary to the Monroe Doctrine was to:
A) renounce the use of military force in Latin America.
B) provide legal grounds for the extension of America's colonial empire in Latin America.
C) justify U.S. military intervention in Latin America if necessary to forestall interference by European nations.
D) provide a timetable for the withdrawal of U.S. troops from Caribbean islands.
21. When Panamanian rebels started a revolt against the government of Colombia in 1903, the United States:
A) remained strictly neutral.
B) intervened on the side of Colombia.
C) intervened on the side of the rebels.
D) called for a meeting of the Pan-American Union.
22. William Howard Taft's policy of encouraging private American investments in underdeveloped regions of the world was given what label by some commentators?
A) Dollar Diplomacy
B) Missionary Diplomacy
C) The White Man's Burden
D) The Good Neighbor Policy
23. Wilson refused to recognize the regime of Victoriano Huerta in Mexico because:
A) he disapproved of its action in murdering political opponents.
B) it would have been politically unpopular in the United States.
C) he feared it was too leftist and would nationalize U.S. investments.
D) he considered it a rebel government in exile, not the legitimate government.
24. The result of the American military expeditions into Mexico in 1914 and 1916 was to:
A) drive out German influence.
B) remove a dictator and restore democracy.
C) embitter U.S.-Mexican relations for several years.
D) lead to more than a decade of occupation by the U.S. Army.
25. The first two countries to begin fighting in the conflict that later became known as World War I were:
A) Austria-Hungary and Serbia.
B) Belgium and Germany.
C) France and Italy.
D) Russia and Poland.
26. In the early years of World War I, from 1914 to 1916, the United States:
A) became an arsenal for the Allies.
B) maintained a genuinely neutral stance.
C) remained politically and economically isolated from European affairs.
D) became sympathetic toward the Central Powers because of the English blockade of Germany.
27. The chief rivalry in pre-World War I Europe was between
A) the Triple Alliance and the Triple Entente.
B) Great Britain and Germany.
C) France and Russia.
D) Russia and Germany.
28. President Wilson protested German violations of American neutrality more harshly than British violations because:
A) he admired the British and favored their cause.
B) a profitable trade was resulting between the United States and the Allies.
C) German actions cost some American lives.
D) of all of the above.
29. Woodrow Wilson's reaction to the sinking of the Lusitania was to:
A) ask Congress for a declaration of war.
B) break diplomatic relations with Germany.
C) impose a complete embargo on exports to both sides.
D) demand assurances from Germany that such outrages would not recur.
30. How did Wilson react to the question of military preparedness versus pacifism from 1914 to 1916?
A) He was among the first leading Americans to urge a rapid military buildup.
B) He was a consistent pacifist right up to the eve of the declaration of war.
C) Initially opposed to a military buildup, by the end of 1915 he came to support preparedness.
D) Initially a staunch militarist, early in 1915 he backed off from this bellicose posture for fear of antagonizing the Central Powers.
31. In the presidential election of 1916, the Democrats emphasized:
A) that Wilson had managed so far to keep the nation out of the European war.
B) domestic issues strongly and almost ignored the European war as an issue.
C) a belligerent stand against German violations of American neutral rights and that a Democratic victory for president and Congress would lead to immediate military intervention on the Allied side.
D) that the United States should take a firm stand against both German and British violations of American neutral rights and should not support or trade with either nation.
32. The significance of the Zimmermann telegram was that it:
A) induced Mexico to join Germany as an ally.
B) inflamed American public opinion against Germany.
C) showed that England was not negotiating in good faith.
D) gave encouragement to the peace faction in the United States.
33. The key immediate cause of the American declaration of war against Germany in the spring of 1917 was the:
A) sinking of the Sussex.
B) Bolshevik revolution in Russia.
C) reports of German atrocities against civilians.
D) German resumption of unrestricted submarine warfare.
34. The most immediate effect of American intervention in the war occurred:
A) in the air.
B) at sea.
C) on the ground in Europe.
D) on the ground in Asia.
35. Which of the following statements concerning the American Expeditionary Force (AEF) is true?
A) The AEF broke the stalemate in favor of the Allies.
B) Due to its inexperience, the AEF proved largely ineffective in actual combat.
C) Due to the lateness of its arrival in Europe, the AEF saw relatively little significant combat.
D) Casualties among the AEF were proportionately larger than among any of the other Allied armies.
36. Which were the two principal methods that the U.S. government used to finance the war effort? (Mark two letters).
A) Deficit spending and printing more Federal Reserve notes.
B) Loans in the form of "Liberty Bonds."
C) Increased taxes on corporations, incomes, and inheritances.
D) Cutting most forms of federal domestic spending, including education and welfare.
37. Herbert Hoover was significant to the American effort in World War I as head of the:
A) Rationing Board.
B) Food Administration.
C) War Industries Board.
D) Industrial Workers of the World.
38. Labor unions:
A) saw the war cause a decrease in membership.
B) gave up the right to strike during the war in return for significant improvements for workers.
C) gave up the right to strike during the war because they viewed such a decision as their patriotic duty.
D) gained permanent advantages as a result of the war.
39. Such expressions as "liberty cabbage" and "liberty sausage," as used during World War I, were an indication of:
A) food shortages in America.
B) American food relief to Belgium.
C) American hostile reaction to things German.
D) American patriotic fervor to increase the food supply by planting home "victory gardens."
40. As used in reference to the period of the Great War, the expression "Great Migration" means:
A) blacks moving from the South to northern industrial cities.
B) urban easterners moving west to agricultural jobs to meet the great demand for food.
C) rural dwellers moving to big cities all over the country.
D) desperate refugees fleeing war-torn Europe for America.
41. The main purpose of the Committee on Public Information, during World War I, was to:
A) inform American consumers about wartime regulations and restrictions on food, gasoline, nylon, and the like.
B) infiltrate behind German lines and distribute flyers to the German and occupied citizens urging them to undermine the war effort.
C) gather data about troop movements and plans of the Central Powers.
D) disseminate pro-war propaganda and promote public support of the war in the United States.
42. Which of the following was NOT one of the principal figures along with Wilson in the Versailles negotiations?
A) Lloyd George
B) Bernard Baruch
C) Vittorio Orlando
D) Georges Clemenceau
43. Which of the following was NOT included in Wilson's Fourteen Points?
A) freedom of the seas
B) reduction in armaments
C) reparations from those guilty of starting the war
D) removal of economic barriers to trade between nations
44. Which of the following nations was not represented at the Paris Peace Conference?
45. In the Senate debate on ratification of the Treaty of Versailles, the so-called irreconcilables were those who were adamantly opposed to:
B) United States membership in the League of Nations.
C) interjecting partisan politics into foreign relations.
D) any modification of the treaty as it was originally drafted.
46. Both the Palmer Raids and the Sacco and Vanzetti case may be cited as evidence in the aftermath of World War I of the depth of feeling in America against:
47. In the first few years after World War I, relations between blacks and whites in America were generally characterized by:
A) grudging acceptance due to common economic distress.
B) extreme resentment, race riots, and numerous lynchings.
C) relative cordiality due to the blacks' gallant service in the war.
D) notable improvement due to new legal safeguards for blacks, which had been enacted during the progressive period.
48. There was a dramatic increase in three of the following economic indicators during the mid 1920s. Which is the exception?
A) output per worker
B) per capita income
C) rate of inflation
D) gross national product
49. America's economic boom in the 1920s resulted from:
A) the debilitation of Europe after World War I.
B) the rapid pace of technological innovations.
C) the expansion of the automobile industry.
D) all of the above.
50. The "welfare capitalism" of the 1920s did NOT provide American workers any:
A) tangible economic gains.
B) real control over their own fates.
C) psychological comfort.
D) opportunities for organization.
51. The essence of welfare capitalism was:
A) company-provided benefits for workers.
B) company-provided bonuses for management.
C) government-provided unemployment benefits for workers.
D) government-provided financial aid for troubled industries.
52. Which of the following did NOT contribute to the weakness of the organized labor movement in America in the 1920s?
A) The radical leadership of the AFL.
B) Hostility of the courts and the Justice Department to union activities.
C) The propaganda promoted by corporate leaders that unionism was un-American.
D) The large numbers of unskilled workers who found no place in the craft orientation of the AFL.
53. The "American Plan":
A) was an effort to revive patriotism that had flagged after the war.
B) was an effort to convince Americans not to buy products manufactured in other nations.
C) was a crusade for the open shop in American corporations.
D) was a plan to Americanize European immigrants.
54. In the 1920s and after, the term "parity" was used to refer to:
A) a fair exchange price for farm crops.
B) equal pay for union and non-union workers.
C) equal pay for equal work for males and females.
D) equal employment opportunities for blacks and whites.
55. Which of the following industries was most closely associated with the rise of consumerism in America in the 1920s?
D) fast-food chains
56. The automobile affected American lives in all of the following ways EXCEPT:
A) It expanded the geographic horizons of millions of people.
B) It contributed to the emergence of a distinct youth culture.
C) It transformed the idea of vacations.
D) It increased the population of the nation's cities.
57. Radio programming:
A) was not new to the 1920s.
B) was not concerned about government regulation.
C) was more centralized than the film industry.
D) helped to spur the growth of advertising.
58. Modernist religion:
A) placed more emphasis on a literal interpretation of the Bible.
B) allowed religion to maintain its traditionally dominant role in American society.
C) emphasized a fully developed personality rather than unexamined faith.
D) ensured that Sunday would remain a national day of rest.
59. The image of the "flapper" promoted each of the following EXCEPT:
A) physical and emotional fulfillment.
B) liberated public behavior.
C) greater freedom in women's dress codes.
D) economic independence for women.
60. Margaret Sanger was significant to American social and cultural life in the 1920s as a promoter of:
B) the "debunkers."
C) progressive education.
D) the birth-control movement.
61. Three of the following were manifestations of changing cultural values among Americans in the 1920s. Which is the exception?
A) There was an increase in secularism.
B) Many women enjoyed a less inhibited lifestyle.
C) The national divorce rate climbed dramatically.
D) Birth-control devices were legalized in all states, and abortion was legalized in some states.
62. According to the text, which of the following had the greatest influence in producing the sense of disillusionment characteristic of the Disenchanted?
A) The decline of organized religion.
B) The moral relativism of pragmatism.
C) The widespread acceptance of evolution.
D) The New Era emphasis on materialism and success.
63. H. L. Mencken was significant to American social and cultural life in the 1920s as:
A) a leading advocate of temperance.
B) a sarcastic debunker of traditional culture.
C) an influential proponent of progressive education.
D) a prominent opponent of the birth-control movement.
64. A principal theme of Sinclair Lewis' novels in the 1920s was:
A) utopian optimism for the future.
B) romantic idealization of the past.
C) contempt for modern American society.
D) acceptance of modern American society as the best of all possible worlds.
65. The Harlem Renaissance referred to:
A) a movement in black literature, art, and music.
B) the spread of jazz to the cites of the North.
C) a movement in New York to improve the conditions of recent immigrants to the United States.
D) a back-to-Africa movement among black intellectuals who had repudiated American values.
66. Three of the following statements accurately describe the "noble experiment" of prohibition. Which is the exception?
A) Enforcement was ludicrously ineffective in some areas.
B) It stimulated the growth of organized crime.
C) The Great Depression hindered efforts to repeal prohibition.
D) Begun as a middle-class progressive reform, prohibition was later supported largely by rural Protestant Americans.
67. Which of the following was NOT a provision of the immigration laws passed in 1921 and 1924?
A) The number of immigrants allowed into the country was reduced.
B) Restrictions on Japanese, Chinese, and Korean immigration were eased.
C) The number of immigrants allowed to enter the United States was expressed as quotas based on a percentage of the number of each national group already in the country at a base year.
D) The provisions favored immigration from northwestern Europe.
68. Which of the following does not describe the new Ku Klux Klan (1915)?
A) Extended its membership outside the old Confederate states.
B) Confined its activities to protests and symbolism rather than violence.
C) Extended its attack to include immigrants, Catholics, and Jews.
D) Assumed the role of self-appointed guardian of traditional values.
69. A Christian fundamentalist is one who:
A) believes in the fundamental inerrancy of the New Testament.
B) wishes to base morality on secular rather than religious fundamentals.
C) accepts the basic or fundamental truths of all the world's religions in the spirit of ecumenicism.
D) believes in the basic or fundamental general ideas of the Bible but not in the literal truth of every statement.
70. John T. Scopes was accused of the "crime" of teaching:
A) the advantages of labor union membership.
B) that Christianity should dominate America.
C) that communism had advantages in some societies.
D) that Darwinian evolution best explains the origins of humans.
71. The most important problem faced by the Democratic Party in the 1920s was:
A) a serious split between urban and rural wings of the party.
B) the party was losing its traditional strength in the South.
C) the fact that recent immigrants no longer tended to support the party.
D) the restriction of immigration reduced the number of recruits to the party.