HST 143         Study Guide: The Unfinished Nation Chapter 15, 16 and 17                         Dr. Kerns


Chapter 15


  1. Freed blacks:

A)    most often demanded a redistribution of economic resources.

B)     only asked for legal equality.

C)    were nearly unanimous in their desire for independence from white control.

D)    generally remained involved in mixed-race churches.


  1. The Thirteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution:

A)    declared that the right to vote could not be denied on account of race.

B)     officially ended slavery.

C)    granted "citizenship" to the freedmen.

D)    provided that states could only count three-fifths (60%) of their black population when determining how many members they would be given in the U.S. House of Representatives.

E)     opened up the West to homesteading by African Americans.


  1. The Fourteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution:

A)    declared that the right to vote could not be denied on account of race.

B)     officially ended slavery.

C)    granted "citizenship" to the freed men.

D)    provided that states could only count three-fifths (60%) of their black population when determining how many members they could be given in the U.S. House of Representatives.

E)     opened up the West to homesteading by African Americans.


  1. The Fifteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution:

A)    declared that the right to vote could not be denied on account of race.

B)     officially ended slavery.

C)    granted "citizenship" to the freedmen.

D)    provided that states could only count three-fifths (60%) of their black population when determining how many members they would be given in the U.S. House of Representatives.


  1. Which faction of the Republican Party wanted Reconstruction to punish the former Confederacy, disenfranchise large numbers of Southern whites, and confiscate the property of leading Confederates?

A)    Moderates.

B)     Conservatives.

C)    Redeemers.

D)    Scalybaggers.

E)     Radicals.


  1. Which best describes Congressional reaction to the former Confederate states that had set up new governments under Andrew Johnson's "presidential Reconstruction"?

A)    They fully accepted all of the states except Georgia and South Carolina, which had elected no blacks to office.

B)     They conditionally accepted all of the states pending the results of local and state elections.

C)    They refused to seat the senators and representatives from the states and set up a committee to investigate and advise on Reconstruction.

D)    They fully accepted all of the states west of the Mississippi River, but required new constitutions in the others.


  1. The "Black Codes" were a set of regulations established by:

A)    the Congress to protect the rights of the former slaves to own property and to find employment.

B)     the U.S. Supreme Court to enforce the provisions of the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Amendments to the U.S. Constitution.

C)    the northern states to prevent a massive influx of former slaves from entering their states and seeking homes and jobs.

D)    the southern states to promote white supremacy and to control the economic and social activities of the freed men.


  1. Which of the following, if any, was NOT a provision of the Congressional plan of Reconstruction enacted in early 1867?

A)    Dividing the South into military districts administered by military commanders.

B)     Requiring former Confederate states, as a condition of readmission to the Union, to ratify the Fourteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution.

C)    Mandating former Confederate states, as a condition of readmission to the Union, to hold a constitutional convention and prepare a constitution providing for black male suffrage.

D)    Declaring that each state must present a plan for distributing farm land to, or providing jobs for, the former slaves.

E)     All of the above were provisions of the Congressional plan of Reconstruction.


  1. Critics of native Soutern whites who joined the Republican Party called them:

A)    carpetbaggers.

B)     whippersnappers.

C)    scalawags.

D)    white camellias.

E)     filibusterers.


  1. Education in the South:

A)    was largely sponsored by local businessmen.

B)     did not take root during Reconstruction.

C)    resulted in the development of mostly mixed-race schools.

D)    reached over 10 percent of the school-age population of former slaves.


  1. Which best describes the extent of "Negro rule" in the Southern states during Reconstruction?

A)    African Americans played a significant political role in several states but never elected a governor or controlled a state legislature.

B)     Some African Americans held local elective offices and a very few were elected to state legislatures but the numbers were politically inconsequential in every state.

C)    In the deep South states where African Americans constituted a majority of the voters due to white disenfranchisement, blacks dominated both houses of the state legislatures and controlled state politics as long as federal troops remained in the South.

D)    African Americans did not actually hold many offices in any state, but they effectively dominated local offices in all but Tennessee and Arkansas through alliances with white Republicans.


  1. What institution was the key point of contact in the agricultural credit system for most Southern farmers, black and white, in the late nineteenth century?

A)    Small town banks owned by Northerners.

B)     Large diversified planters.

C)    Finance companies in the larger cities such as Atlanta and Memphis.

D)    Local country-store merchants.

E)     Mail order mortgage companies operating out of New York.


  1. In the late nineteenth century, the agricultural credit system in the South encouraged farmers to:

A)    rely heavily on cash crops--especially cotton.

B)     diversify away from cotton toward food grains and livestock.

C)    adopt the use of mechanization on increasingly larger farms.

D)    abandon farming and invest in capital-intensive manufacturing enterprises.


  1. The election of 1868:

A)    was a landslide for Grant.

B)     saw Grant uncertain whether to run as the candidate for the Democrats or Republicans.

C)    was narrow because of his opposition to Reconstruction.

D)    was free from violence in the South.


  1. The greenback movement:

A)    was most popular with creditors.

B)     introduced one of the most powerful political issues of the late nineteenth century.

C)    resulted in the creation of a successful third party.

D)    ended in the adoption of the movement's proposed legislation.


  1. Ulysses S. Grant's election as president was largely a result of his being:

A)    governor of New York during the postwar economic boom.

B)     a triumphant commanding general of the Union army.

C)    the popular administrator of the Freedmen's Bureau.

D)    a flamboyant cavalry officer in the western Indian wars.


  1. Which of the following, if any, was not associated with the "Compromise of 1877"?

A)    Removal of the last federal troops from the South.

B)     Increased federal aid for railroads and other internal improvements.

C)    Appointment of a Southerner to the cabinet.

D)    Making Rutherford B. Hayes president.

E)     All of the above were associated with the "Compromise of 1877."


  1. Which, of the following, if any, is not cited by the text as a reason that Reconstruction failed to accomplish more to promote racial equality in the United States?

A)    Fear that harsh action might lead to resumed military action by the southern states, even though they had been defeated.

B)     Attachment to a states' rights view of the Constitution, even for the rebel states.

C)    Deep respect for private property rights, even for leading Confederates.

D)    Belief in black inferiority by many whites, even Northern liberals.


  1. The "solid" South refers to the:

A)    work ethic values of Southern whites.

B)     courage of Confederate soldiers during the war despite being outnumbered.

C)    steady returns that Northern bankers could expect from investment in cotton.

D)    the fact that the Democratic Party could count on the votes of the Southern states after Reconstruction.


  1. In most states, the "Redeemers" or "Bourbons" were typically composed of:

A)    a newly emerging class of merchants, industrialists, railroad developers, and financiers.

B)     essentially the same old planter elite that had dominated antebellum politics.

C)    a coalition of poor, working-class whites and blacks.

D)    white farmers who owned small to medium farms.


  1. Recent historians of Reconstruction:

A)    have argued that that blacks gained significant improvements through this era.

B)     have viewed it as a failure.

C)    have viewed it as a substantial success.

D)    have found the racism of white Southerners overstated.


  1. Henry W. Grady was:

A)    the builder of the American Tobacco Company.

B)     an Atlanta editor who became a leading spokesman for the "New South" idea.

C)    the person principally responsible for Birmingham, Alabama, becoming an iron and steel production center.

D)    the governor of South Carolina who was most vociferous in advocating that blacks should migrate from the South to take industrial jobs in the North.


  1. In Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) the U.S. Supreme Court established the general principle that:

A)    states could not prevent blacks from voting just because their grandparents had been slaves.

B)     states could require separate accommodations on trains, in schools, and the like, for blacks and whites as long as the accommodations were equal.

C)    Congress could take away a state's seats in the U.S. House of Representatives if the state refused to allow blacks to vote in Congressional elections.

D)    local governments could use zoning and building codes to enforce racial segregation by neighborhood.


  1. "Jim Crow" is a nickname for:

A)    white Southerners who used violence or intimidation to restrict black activities.

B)     black people who curried favor with whites by acting excessively polite and deferential.

C)    the whole system of laws and customs that kept the races separate in schools, public buildings, houses, jobs, theaters and the like.

D)    black people who pretended to be friendly toward whites but who secretly undermined white interests.

E)     the African-American culture of dance, music, food and religion that grew up after slavery.


  1. Around the turn of the century, which of the following was most likely to attract Northern white support?

A)    Increased enforcement of the Fifteenth Amendment.

B)     Statutes allowing whites and blacks to marry each other if they wished.

C)    A federal anti-lynching law.

D)    Congressional intervention to promote racial integration in Southern public schools.


Chapter 16


  1. White arrivals to the West in the post-Civil War era found all of the following ethnic and racial groups already living there EXCEPT:

A)    Asians

B)     freed slaves

C)    French

D)    Mexicans


  1. Because the area was arid to semiarid and thought to be unfit for anglo-European civilization, many nineteenth-century Americans called the Far West the:

A)    Trans-Mississippi Wasteland.

B)     Intermountain Barrens.

C)    Prairie Wilderness.

D)    Great American Desert.


  1. Indian Territory, to which several eastern Indian tribes including the Cherokees and Creeks were removed, is now the state of:

A)    South Dakota.

B)     Kansas.

C)    Oklahoma.

D)    Wyoming.


  1. What northern Plains Indian nation was the strongest?

A)    Comanche

B)     Sioux

C)    Pawnee

D)    Blackfeet


  1. What happened to the californios who dominated California prior to the gold rush of 1849?

A)    Most died due to epidemic diseases brought in by the miners.

B)     The ones who could speak English adapted well and continued to dominate real estate ownership.

C)    Most emigrated back to Mexico or Arizona.

D)    Many lost status and land and were excluded from the prosperity of the statehood period.

  1. Which of the following was not a reason for Anglo-American resentment of Chinese immigrants?

A)    They tended to congregate together and maintain Chinese culture.

B)     Some secret societies ("tongs") engaged in crime.

C)    Many of the early female Chinese immigrants had been sold into prostitution.

D)    The Chinese were perceived as lazy slackers who would not work hard.


  1. Most of the new migrants from the East were:

A)    freed blacks.

B)     European immigrants.

C)    from the poorest classes of Eastern cities:

D)    from the working and middle classes of the Eastern United States.


  1. Which of the following was NOT a flaw in the Homestead Act?

A)    One hundred sixty acres was not enough land in the West.

B)     The law did not provide capital for machines and the like.

C)    The land was too costly for most settlers.


  1. Labor in the West:

A)    was plentiful with all the new arrivals.

B)     offered excellent job security.

C)    often pitted workers of different races against each other.

D)    made it easy for owners of businesses to expand their operations.


  1. Which type of mining came first as new fields opened?

A)    placer (pan)

B)     quartz (lode)

C)    strip (open pit)

D)    hydrolic (water pressure)


  1. Which of the following states/territories did not experience significant mining development from the 1850s to 1880s?

A)    Nevada

B)     Colorado

C)    Kansas

D)    South Dakota

E)     Montana


  1. The "long drive" in the open-range cattle industry referred to the process of:

A)    rounding up the cattle from great distances all over the range for branding in the spring.

B)     moving the cattle south to Texas in the winter and north to Colorado, Wyoming, and Montana in the spring to take advantage of the best pasture.

C)    using cattle as oxen to pull covered wagons for settlers seeking homesteads in the West.

D)    herding cattle from the ranges in Texas and other remote areas to the nearest accessible railroad loading point so that the cattle could be shipped to slaughterhouses in the East.


  1. What two groups constituted most of the cowboys in the open range era?

A)    Southern Whites and Native Americans.

B)     Native Americans and Hispanics.

C)    African Americans and Southern Whites.

D)    Hispanics and African Americans.

E)     Chinese and Southern Whites.


  1. The historian who influenced many with his paper on "The Significance of the Frontier in American History" was:

A)    Oliver Wendell Holmes.

B)     C. W. McCune.

C)    Albert Bierstadt.

D)    Frederick Jackson Turner.

E)     Charles A. Beard.


  1. The Wild West shows:

A)    presented an accurate depiction of Western life.

B)     were not very popular with American audiences.

C)    featured Buffalo Bill Cody, who had never actually worked in the West.

D)    incorporated Indians into the entertainment.

  1. The federal government agency vested with management of Indian relations and the reservations was the:

A)    Indian Lands Commission.

B)     Native American Administration.

C)    Office of Assimilation and Concentration.

D)    Bureau of Indian Affairs.


  1. Who were the two principal Indian chiefs who led the forces that massed in the northern plains in 1875-1876 following the Black Hills gold rush?

A)    Black Kettle and Crazy Horse.

B)     Sitting Bull and Geronimo.

C)    Crazy Horse and Sitting Bull.

D)    Geronimo and Crazy Horse.

E)     Red Eagle and Black Kettle.


  1. The fighting at Wounded Knee:

A)    resulted in an Indian victory.

B)     turned into a massacre of Indians, including women and children.

C)    was Custer's redemption after the Battle of Little Big Horn.

D)    was started by a sneak attack by the Sioux on the Seventh Cavalry.


  1. The purpose of the Dawes Severalty Act of 1887 was to:

A)    weaken tribes, allot land to individual Indians, and promote assimilation.

B)     geographically disperse the reservations so it would be more difficult for Indian forces to unite.

C)    increase tribal loyalty and reduce violence by allowing chiefs and tribal councils to act autonomously on the reservations.

D)    restore economic viability to the nomadic way of Plains Indian life by revitalizing the bison herds.


  1. Construction of the early transcontinental railroad lines was financed mainly by:

A)    European investors excited about the developing American West.

B)     Wall Street investors with close ties to cattle and mining interests.

C)    small investors such as farmers and local merchants who wanted to attract rail lines to their communities.

D)    government subsidies in the form of favorable loans and land grants.


  1. What fencing material revolutionized agriculture on the prairies and plains?

A)    split rails.

B)     chain link.

C)    pickets.

D)    barbed wire.


  1. By the end of the century, agriculture on the Great Plains was increasingly:

A)    subsistence in nature.

B)     commercially oriented.

C)    truck farming.

D)    being displaced by industry.


  1. Which of the following are listed in the text as farmers' three principal grievances?

A)    high interest rates, inequitable freight rates and inadequate currency.

B)     high interest rates, persistent production shortfalls and poor-quality farm machinery produced by American factories.

C)    inadequate currency, persistent production shortfalls and poor-quality farm machinery produced by American factories.

D)    poor-quality farm machinery produced by American factories, inequitable freight rates and inadequate currency.

E)     high interest rates, inequitable freight rates and poor-quality farm machinery produced by American factories.



Chapter 17


  1. Three of the following are advantages that the United States enjoyed in its rise to industrial supremacy in the late nineteenth century. Which is the exception?

A)    favorable government policies.

B)     an abundance of basic raw materials.

C)    a growing labor supply and expanding market.

D)    a high level of basic research in pure science.


  1. During the 1870s and 1880s, the railroad industry:

A)    reduced the amount of track miles in the United States.

B)     increased the amount of track in the United States by 10,000 miles.

C)    increased the amount of track in the United States by 40,000 miles.

D)    increased the amount of track in the United States by 100,000 miles.


  1. Both the Bessemer-Kelly process and the open-hearth process are methods of:

A)    mining coal.

B)     producing steel.

C)    pasteurizing milk.

D)    refining petroleum.


  1. The oil industry was important in the late nineteenth century as:

A)    a source of fuel to satisfy the growing American demand.

B)     the producer of a lubricant for the machines of the steel industry.

C)    a replacement for coal as an energy source.

D)    all of the above.


  1. The term "Taylorism" refers to:

A)    scientific management in industry.

B)     a revival of pride in craftsmanship.

C)    a movement to organize unskilled labor.

D)    a movement away from mass-produced clothing.


  1. Henry Ford's main contribution to American industrialism was his:

A)    invention of the internal combustion engine.

B)     introduction of structured management organization.

C)    investment in research and development.

D)    use of the moving assembly line to achieve mass production.


  1. Each of the following was true about the railroads between 1860 and 1900 EXCEPT:

A)    they were the nation's biggest investors.

B)     they increased the miles of track in the United States by over six times during these four decades.

C)    they democratized control over the nation's transportation system.

D)    they were built largely through government subsidies.


  1. Andrew Carnegie made his principal fortune in the field of:

A)    steel.

B)     banking.

C)    shipping.

D)    petroleum.


  1. The legal principle that made investment in corporations attractive and made the growth of huge corporations possible was:

A)    caveat emptor.

B)     accelerated depreciation.

C)    limited liability.

D)    exemption allowances.


  1. A "vertically integrated" system of production is one in which:

A)    all the employees belong to one big union organized by industry rather than by craft.

B)     management and labor share equally in the profits through an elaborate sharing arrangement.

C)    employees of different ethnic origins work together on the assembly line.

D)    a single company controls the entire industrial process from source of raw materials to the final market.


  1. John D. Rockefeller made his principal fortune in the field of:

A)    steel.

B)     banking.

C)    shipping.

D)    petroleum.


  1. What new type of business organization permitted a small group of capitalists to control the stock of a large number of individual corporations without actually becoming one company? The term later came to refer generally to any huge economic concentration.

A)    trust

B)     cartel

C)    holding company

D)    joint-stock company


  1. The idea of the "self-made man":

A)    was proved by the frequent rise of working-class Americans to the upper economic classes.

B)     reduced the amount of corruption in American industry.

C)    was reaffirmed by the favorable odds of becoming a millionaire.

D)    ignored the fact that most millionaires came from families of wealth and privilege.


  1. "Social Darwinism" was based on what aspect of Charles Darwin's theory of biological evolution?

A)    social gospel

B)     instant creation

C)    biblical inerrancy

D)    survival of the fittest


  1. Social Darwinism and classical economics agree that:

A)    humans are descended from lower animals.

B)     free competition promotes human progress.

C)    the government should ease the lot of the poor.

D)    government ownership of the majority of the means of production is desirable.


  1. Which of the following emphasizes most strongly the duty of the rich to do good works for the public?

A)    socialism

B)     Social Darwinism

C)    classical economics

D)    The Gospel of Wealth

  1. The "single tax" was:

A)    an income tax

B)     a sales tax

C)    a tax on "unearned increments."

D)    a tax on "earned increments."


  1. The theme of virtually all of Horatio Alger's novels was:

A)    the rich get richer; the poor get poorer.

B)     poor boy makes good by hard work, perseverance, and luck.

C)    average guy gets wealthy through cunning, guile, and questionable business practices.

D)    rich man has conversion and realizes that philanthropy and government regulation are the only ways to promote an equitable society.


  1. In the late nineteenth century, the American working classes suffered from three of the following conditions. Which is the exception?

A)    Little or no worker's compensation for injury.

B)     No government health and safety regulations.

C)    Declining standard of living, in both absolute and relative terms.

D)    No job security; layoffs due to seasonal, cyclical, or technological factors.


  1. The Molly Maguires:

A)    used terrorist tactics to intimidate the coal operators in Pennsylvania.

B)     received broad support from middle-class Americans.

C)    were among the more conservative unionists.

D)    gained their broadest support in the cities of Chicago and New York.


  1. The immediate cause of the railroad strikes of 1877 was:

A)    a 10 percent cut in wages.

B)     the infiltration of unions by anarchists.

C)    the refusal of the owners to adopt safety measures.

D)    the refusal of the owners to agree to cost-of-living increases.


  1. A major feature of the program of the American Federation of Labor was its emphasis on:

A)    gender equity between male and female industrial workers.

B)     reforming and altering the capitalist system so that workers would own part of the corporations they worked for.

C)    immediate gains for its members, such as higher wages, shorter hours, and better working conditions.

D)    mass organization of all laborers skilled, unskilled, and agricultural.


  1. The significance of the Haymarket Square incident in 1886 was that:

A)    unions won their demand for an eight-hour day.

B)     the American socialist movement received a great boost.

C)    the use of Pinkerton guards as strikebreakers was outlawed.

D)    it stimulated a hysterical wave of fear of anarchism and its alleged connection with unionism.


  1. The Homestead strike of 1892 and the Pullman strike of 1894 were similar in that:

A)    both involved the American Railway Union.

B)     federal troops were used to restore order in both.

C)    both started when management ordered pay cuts for some workers.

D)    strikers fought Pinkerton guards in violent pitched battles at both locations.