HST 141                                              THE UNFINISHED NATION, VOLUME I: TO 1877                                               Dr, Kerns

                                                                      STUDY GUIDE: CHAPTERS 1, 2 AND 3


Chapter 1


  1. The Indian Empire that dominated modern Mexico at the time of the Spanish conquest was the:

A)    Mayan.

B)     Inca.

C)    Aztec.

D)    Chaco.


  1. At the time of the Spanish conquest, the economies of most of the Native Americans in South and Central America and Mexico were based on:

A)    hunting and gathering.

B)     herding.

C)    fishing and gathering.

D)    agriculture.


  1. The eastern third of what is now the United States was inhabited by the:

A)    Woodland Indians.

B)     Plains Indians.

C)    Mountain Indians.

D)    Coastal Tribes.


  1. Indian religions:

A)    emphasized monotheism.

B)     utilized totem poles in their ceremonies.

C)    were tied closely to the natural world.

D)    were not very important to their culture.


  1. Indian societies in North America:

A)    made little distinction between gender roles.

B)     tended to divide tasks according to gender.

C)    put women in important political positions.

D)    did not allow women to exercise any control over social or economic matters.


  1. Europe during the Middle Ages:

A)    was dominated by the Protestant Church.

B)     was too divided and decentralized to inspire great ventures

C)    built economies based on commercial agriculture.

D)    was dominated by merchants looking for new markets beyond the boundaries of their own nations.


  1. Paralleling the rise of commerce in Europe, and in part responsible for it was:

A)    the return of the Black Death.

B)     the invention of the compass.

C)    the revival of the African slave trade.

D)    the rise of united and powerful nation states.


  1. The first nation to fund exploratory journeys beyond the boundaries of Europe was:

A)    Portugal

B)     Germany

C)    England

D)    France


  1. At least partly as a result of Columbus's voyages, Spain:

A)    got involved in the Indian slave trade.

B)     soon went to war with France.

C)    replaced Portugal as the foremost seafaring nation.

D)    opened trade with the great khan in China.


  1. Through a combination of daring, brutality, and greed, the conquistadors:

A)    made possible the creation of a Spanish empire in America.

B)     brought capitalism to Mexico.

C)    founded St. Augustine.

D)    introduced African slavery into America.


  1. With the Indians' conversion to Catholicism:

A)    native religions died out.

B)     most natives continued to practice their own religious rituals.

C)    rebellions against whites ceased.

D)    Spain was able to control all southwestern tribes.


  1. The Pueblo Revolt of 1680:

A)    resulted in the permanent expulsion of Spain from New Mexico.

B)     allowed the Pueblos to regain temporary political control of their communities.

C)    resulted in the annihilation of the Pueblo people.

D)    resulted from the unjust takings of Pueblo land by the Spanish.


  1. The first and perhaps most profound result of the meeting of native and European cultures was the:

A)    exchange of plants and animals.

B)     importation of European diseases.

C)    native adoption of European ways of waging war.

D)    intermarriage of Europeans and natives.


  1. Ultimately more important to Europe than the gold and silver found in the New World was the:

A)    importation of new crops that could feed larger numbers of people.

B)     discovery of new forms of religious worship.

C)    Indian labor force.

D)    architectural knowledge gained from the Aztecs.


  1. In matrilineal Indian and African societies:

A)    the father is the sole authority in the family.

B)     local gods are the basis of religious beliefs.

C)    women play a major, often dominant, role.

D)    slavery does not exist.


  1. The African slave trade began:

A)    in the fifteenth century, soon after the Spanish conquest.

B)     as early as the eighth century.

C)    with the English settlement of Virginia.

D)    when the sugar industry moved to the Caribbean.


  1. In the sixteenth century the market for slaves grew dramatically as a result of:

A)    the rising European demand for sugar cane.

B)     the need for labor in the tobacco fields.

C)    a desire to Christianize Africans.

D)    the English entry into the slave market.


  1. Which of the following was not an English incentive for colonization?

A)    To escape religious strife at home.

B)     To bring the Christian religion to the Indians.

C)    To escape the economic transformation of the countryside.

D)    To find new markets for English products.


  1. Members of the Church of England who claimed that the church had not given up Rome's offensive beliefs and practices were the:

A)    Baptists.

B)     Presbyterians.

C)    Methodists.

D)    Puritans.


  1. As a result of their experiences in Ireland, the English believed that:

A)    all they needed to do was subdue the natives and rule them.

B)     they must retain a rigid separation from the native population.

C)    they could not build a complete society of their own.

D)    they should intermarry with the Native Americans.


  1. The country that produced the most successful fur traders and trappers was:

A)    Spain.

B)     Holland.

C)    France.

D)    Germany.


  1. The first permanent English settlement was:

A)    Massachusetts Bay.

B)     Jamestown, Virginia.

C)    Plymouth, Massachusetts.

D)    St. Augustine, Florida.


  1. The man to whom Queen Elizabeth granted the land on which the "lost colony" was planted was:

A)    John White.

B)     Walter Raleigh.

C)    Humphrey Gilbert.

D)    James Cobb.


Chapter 2


  1. Which of the following did not shape the character of English settlements in America?

A)    The colonies were business enterprises.

B)     The colonies promoted freedom of religion.

C)    The colonies were designed to transplant society from the old world to the new.

D)    The colonies were able to develop their own political and social institutions.


  1. One of the biggest problems during the first years of the Jamestown settlements was:

A)    the unwillingness of colonists to grow food.

B)     fights over the colony's few white women.

C)    attacks by Indian neighbors.

D)    battles between slaveowners and non-slaveowners.


  1. Captain John Smith helped Jamestown survive when he:

A)    divided the duties and privileges of leadership among several members of a council.

B)     imposed work and order on the colony.

C)    ended raids perpetrated on neighboring Indian villages to steal food and kidnap natives.

D)    divided the colony's profits among the stockholders.


  1. The Englishman who first cultivated tobacco in Virginia was:

A)    John Smith.

B)     Lord De La Warr.

C)    John Rolfe.

D)    Walter Raleigh.


  1. The year 1619 was important in the history of Virginia because that year the colony:

A)    elected its first House of Burgesses.

B)     made its first profit.

C)    received its first royal governor.

D)    put down an Indian uprising.


  1. To entice new laborers to their colony, the Virginia Company established the "headright" system to:

A)    pay the Indians for their services.

B)     import African slaves.

C)    grant land to current and prospective settlers.

D)    promise the colonists the full rights of Englishmen.


  1. In 1619, another crucial element was introduced into the Virginia social order. It was:

A)    Catholics.

B)     Africans.

C)    Women.

D)    Puritans.


  1. Which of the following colonies allowed freedom of religion to all Christians?

A)    Massachusetts.

B)     Virginia.

C)    Plymouth.

D)    Maryland.


  1. Which if the following problems occurred during the early years of the Maryland colony?

A)    starving time

B)     disease

C)    battles with Indians

D)    religious disputes


  1. Which of the following factors contributed to the outbreak of Bacon's Rebellion?

A)    The autocratic rule of Governor Berkeley.

B)     Overrepresentation in government of the frontier settlements.

C)    The government's pursuit and destruction of Indian marauders.

D)    All of the above.


  1. Bacon's Rebellion was significant because:

A)    revealed the bitterness of competition among rival elites in Virginia.

B)     it was evidence of the continuing struggle to define the Indian and white spheres of influence in Virginia.

C)    it demonstrated the potential for instability in the colony's large population of landless men.

D)    of a. and c.

E)     of all of the above.


  1. The majority of colonists who first settled in Plymouth were:

A)    members of a Puritan Separatist congregation.

B)     not members of a Puritan Separatist congregation.

C)    upper-middle class Puritans from the London area.

D)    moderate Puritans who wanted only minor reforms in church practices.


  1. The Plymouth colony's relationship with its Indian neighbors was:

A)    antagonistic from the beginning.

B)     made worse by the diseases they brought with them from Europe.

C)    an integral part of its survival during the formative years of the colony.

D)    similar to that of settlers in Jamestown.


  1. The first governor of the Massachusetts Bay colony was:

A)    John Winthrop.

B)     William Bradford.

C)    Roger Williams.

D)    Thomas Hooker.


  1. The colony in Hartford:

A)    was founded by members of the New Haven colony.

B)     gave more white men the right to vote than the Massachusetts Bay Colony.

C)    had stricter religious standards than did the Massachusetts Bay Colony.

D)    was led by Anne Hutchinson.


  1. Anne Hutchinson's teaching threatened to undermine the spiritual authority of the established clergy because she:

A)    claimed believers could communicate directly with God.

B)     preached that the clergy was corrupt.

C)    denounced clergymen who were also politicians.

D)    stressed faith over good works.


  1. Regarding the Indians, Puritan settlers were least likely to advocate a policy of:

A)    conversion to Christianity.

B)     tolerance and respect.

C)    displacement.

D)    extermination.


  1. The Restoration colonies had in common that they were all:

A)    located in the south.

B)     profitable for the crown.

C)    proprietary ventures.

D)    royal colonies.


  1. Slavery in Carolina was greatly influenced by slavery in:

A)    Virginia.

B)     Barbados.

C)    St. Augustine.

D)    England.


  1. Caribbean colonies built their economies on:

A)    the slave trade.

B)     shipbuilding.

C)    export crops.

D)    fishing.


  1. Under the Caribbean slave code:

A)    slaves lived longer than they did in other regions.

B)     masters could kill slaves with impunity.

C)    the island colonies became secure and prosperous communities.

D)    owners were responsible for maintaining the health of their slaves.


  1. The Navigation Acts were designed to:

A)    regulate commerce according to the theory of mercantilism.

B)     destroy the power of rising colonial merchants.

C)    keep the price of tobacco low.

D)    raise money to pay off England's war debts.


  1. The overthrow of James II in the Glorious Revolution was:

A)    well received in New England.

B)     criticized by colonial merchants.

C)    the result of pressure on Edmund Andros.

D)    hardly felt by colonial politicians.


  1. In America, the Glorious Revolution of 1688 led to changes which revealed:

A)    a colonial desire for self government.

B)     that local issues were more important than questions over the nature of the empire.

C)    that the institution of monarchy was unpopular.

D)    that the established church was unpopular.


Chapter 3


  1. The American colonies were more like each other than England in every way EXCEPT:

A)    they had to deal with a wild physical environment.

B)     they had to deal with Indian tribes as neighbors.

C)    they had to deal with religious disputes.

D)    they had to deal with an ethnically and racially diverse population.


  1. During the seventeenth century, at least three-fourths of the immigrants who came to the Chesapeake colonies came as:

A)    slaves.

B)     artisans.

C)    indentured servants.

D)    convicts.


  1. The high mortality rate in the southern colonies had the effect of:

A)    weakening the traditional patriarchal family structure.

B)     creating significant labor shortages in New England.

C)    making it difficult for women to find husbands.

D)    keeping the birth rate low.


  1. In the Puritan colonies, the principal economic and religious unit in the community was the:

A)    family.

B)     meeting house.

C)    town meetings.

D)    small farm.


  1. The mid-1690s marked a turning point in the history of the black population in America because:

A)    planters from Barbados came to Carolina.

B)     slavery was introduced in Georgia.

C)    Massachusetts and Rhode Island abolished slavery.

D)    the Royal Africa Company lost its monopoly.


  1. The one factor which determined whether a person was subject to the slave codes in the British American colonies was:

A)    their country of origin.

B)     the ancestry of their father.

C)    the ancestry of their mother.

D)    Color.


  1. Historian Edmund S. Morgan argued that the institutionalization of African slavery in America reflected:

A)    an effort by colonial governments to attract more white indentured servants by offering them a relatively high status.

B)     the deep seated racism that white settlers had brought with them.

C)    white fears of black resistance or even revolt.

D)    economic and social needs for an easily recruited and controlled labor force.


  1. The most numerous of the non-English immigrants were the:

A)    Scotch-Irish.

B)     Pennsylvania Dutch.

C)    French Huguenots.

D)    Scottish Highlanders.


  1. Which of the following was not one of the reasons that Africans were so valuable to planters along the Carolina and Georgia coasts?

A)    They could be forced to do work that white laborers refused to do.

B)     They often came from rice-producing regions of Africa.

C)    They were more accustomed to the hot and humid climate.

D)    They could be counted on to work the fields without protest.


  1. Conditions for agriculture were better in the middle colonies than in most of New England because of:

A)    cold weather and rocky soil.

B)     more temperate weather.

C)    the lack of a substantial commercial economy in the middle colonies.

D)    oversupply of single male workers.


  1. The industrial activities of the Northern colonies:

A)    included the growth of a iron industry supported by Parliament.

B)     was primarily limited to local businesses and goods made for the home.

C)    was strengthened by a surplus of labor in the colonies.

D)    replaced crops as the major export items of the region.


  1. A common problem in American commerce in the seventeenth century was:

A)    the lack of a commonly accepted currency.

B)     an insufficient number of ships to carry colonial goods.

C)    too many large companies in every colony.

D)    a small, unprofitable coastal trade.


  1. The maze of highly diverse trade routes that involved the buying and selling of rum, slaves, and sugar was known as the:

A)    staple system.

B)     triangular trade.

C)    middle passage.

D)    Atlantic highway.


  1. During the seventeenth century, colonial plantations were:

A)    rough and relatively small.

B)     English country estates on a smaller scale.

C)    seats of an entrenched, landholding aristocracy.

D)    insignificant in the colonial economy.


  1. African slaves in the colonial South:

A)    were rigidly separated from whites.

B)     were widely scattered on small farms, seldom in contact with one another.

C)    often participated in various forms of organized resistance.

D)    began to develop a society and culture of their own.


  1. The characteristic social unit in New England was the:

A)    isolated farm.

B)     meeting house.

C)    town.

D)    plantation.


  1. In colonial New England, tensions between expectations of a cohesive, united community and the reality of an increasingly diverse and fluid one led to:

A)    a general economic decline.

B)     the witch trials.

C)    a decline in piety.

D)    the rise of the merchant class.


  1. Which of the following was not a function of a colonial American city?

A)    They were trading centers.

B)     They were centers of industry.

C)    They were intellectual centers.

D)    They were areas of few social distinctions.


  1. In matters of religion, Americans were:

A)    less tolerant than their English counterparts.

B)     more tolerant than their English counterparts.

C)    more inclined to be members of an Anglican congregation.

D)    unconcerned about piety, especially in New England.


  1. Which of the following was not a reason for the decline of piety in colonial America?

A)    Westward migration.

B)     Rise of towns.

C)    Corrupt ministers.

D)    The importation of Enlightenment ideas.


  1. The Great Awakening was:

A)    an effort to alert colonists to British efforts to control them politically.

B)     the way the Enlightenment influenced American education.

C)    the opening of new commercial opportunities in the West.

D)    the first great religious revival in America.


  1. Before the Revolution, American education:

A)    occurred primarily at "dame schools."

B)     created a white male population more literate than those of European nations.

C)    allowed most white men to attend college.

D)    created a more literate female than male population.


  1. Which of the following offers the best historical source of information about humor in the American colonies?

A)    the Bible

B)     colonial newspapers

C)    almanacs

D)    novels


  1. The influence of science in the colonies:

A)    was limited to the universities.

B)     allowed for the derision of Franklin's experiment with electricity.

C)    led to the controversial and dangerous programs of inoculation against smallpox.

D)    was spurned by colonial religious leaders.


  1. During the first half of the eighteenth century, colonial legislatures were generally:

A)    able to act independently of Parliament.

B)     controlled by the governor.

C)    free from class distinctions.

D)    a reflection of democracy in their respective colonies.