Study Guide for Quiz 2: The Unfinished Nation Chapters 18, 19 and 20                              Dr. Kerns


Chapter 18


1.      Which of the following population trends occurred in the United States from 1860 to 1910?

A)    Gradual decline of the rural population in absolute numbers.

B)     Shift of the majority of the urban population from central city to suburbs.

C)    Significant shift of the population from the North to the South.

D)    Faster rate of growth for the cities than for the general population.


2.      Because of rapid growth in the latter nineteenth century, American cities:

A)    protected traditional social and cultural values.

B)     provided services and facilities inadequate to demands.

C)    witnessed the flight of factories and corporate offices to newer, less crowded locations.

D)    supported efficient and honest governments.


3.      American urban population growth from 1860 to 1910 resulted mainly from a(n):

A)    low rate of infant mortality.

B)     increasing fertility rate.

C)    low death rate from disease.

D)    large influx of new immigrants.


4.      The large-scale movement of African Americans from the rural South to industrial cities began during the latter nineteenth century mainly because of the:

A)    poverty and oppression of the South.

B)     prospective professional opportunities in the cities.

C)    abundance of factory jobs there for African Americans.

D)    absence of racial discrimination in the North.


5.      The new immigrants of the latter nineteenth century settled primarily in eastern industrial cities because they:

A)    lacked the capital to buy land and begin farming in the West.

B)     found immediate employment as unskilled factory workers.

C)    found refuge and camaraderie among fellow nationals there.

D)    did all of the above.


6.      The formation of ethnic neighborhoods by immigrants in American cities:

A)    tended to reinforce the cultural values of their previous societies.

B)     resulted primarily from discriminatory zoning restrictions.

C)    prevented their identification with, and advancement in, American society.

D)    intensified a sense of not belonging to a coherent community.


7.      Nativist reaction against European immigrants of the latter nineteenth century resulted from all of the following factors except the:

A)    arrival of such vast numbers of immigrants.

B)     refusal of most immigrants and their children to attempt to assimilate themselves into American culture.

C)    generalized fears of, and prejudices against, foreigners.

D)    economic concern that immigrant workers would threaten the wages and positions of American workers.


8.      Which of the following groups were excluded from immigration to the United States by laws passed in the 1880s and 1890s? (Mark one or more letters.)

A)    Irish and illiterates

B)     Chinese and undesirables

C)    illiterates and undesirables

D)    Irish and illiterates

9.      The Immigration Restriction League:

A)    blamed foreigners for all the disorder and corruption of the urban world.

B)     advocated the screening of immigrants through literacy tests.

C)    adopted crude theories of conspiracy and a stance of rabid xenophobia.

D)    enlisted the support of President Grover Cleveland for their proposals.


10.  The majority of big-city residents in latter- nineteenth-century America:

A)    could afford their own houses, thanks to the availability of cheap labor and low building costs.

B)     took advantage of less expensive lands on the edges of the city and settled in suburbs.

C)    stayed in the city centers and rented living space.

D)    exacted high standards from urban landlords.


11.  Most wealthy urban residents:

A)    lived on the edge of the city to keep distance between them and the urban poor.

B)     lived in new "fashionable districts" in the heart of the city.

C)    lived in the new suburbs and took the streetcars into the city.

D)    built homes at a distance from the city to take advantage of the cleaner air and commuted on the railroads.


12.  By the 1890s, a million New Yorkers lived in tenements, which were:

A)    slum dwellings with inadequate light, plumbing, and heat.

B)     helping relieve and disperse population growth.

C)    rental buildings designed for single-family residences.

D)    transformed by state laws into model housing units for the poor.


13.  New forms of urban transportation during this era included

A)    horse-drawn streetcars.

B)     elevated railroads.

C)    commuter ferries.

D)    gasoline-powered buses.


14.  What late nineteenth-century technological developments made "skyscrapers" practical?

A)    electric elevators and concrete

B)     air conditioning and electric elevators

C)    concrete and steel girder construction

D)    steel girder construction and electric elevators


15.  Urban poverty was:

A)    was greatly relieved by the Salvation Army.

B)     was significantly eased by the generosity of the middle class.

C)    was not viewed as a structural problem during this era.

D)    was eased by the open-minded charity work of Protestant philanthropists.


16.  The most famous and notorious city "boss" of the late nineteenth century was:

A)    Louis Sullivan.

B)     Theodore Dreiser.

C)    John A. Roebling.

D)    William M. Tweed.


17.  The political machines of the bosses were able to retain power for all of the following reasons except:

A)    immigrant voters were more concerned with receiving services than with middle-class standards of political morality.

B)     some wealthy and influential citizens profited from dealings with the bosses.

C)    city government structure often had structural weaknesses that kept it from meeting citizen needs.

D)    the absence of reform groups to mobilize public outrage against boss rule.


18.  Which of the following was not NOT a trend contributing to the rise of mass consumption in the latter nineteenth century?

A)    The emergence of ready-made clothing as a basis of the American wardrobe.

B)     The breakup of marketing monopolies held by national chain stores.

C)    The development of canned food and refrigerated railroad cars.

D)    The emergence of large department stores and mail-order houses.


19.  Each of the following spectator sports increased in popularity during this era EXCEPT:

A)    baseball

B)     football

C)    boxing

D)    hockey


20.  Vaudeville shows were composed of:

A)    traveling dramatists who performed Shakespeare and other classic plays in small towns and cites.

B)     a variety of acts including musicians, singers, comedians, magicians, jugglers, dancers, and the like.

C)    a mixture of primitive motion pictures with music by a small live orchestra.

D)    gypsies and other unsavory characters who used the shows to attract crowds to sell patent medicines and other fraudulent products.


21.  The emergence of national press services in the latter nineteenth century contributed most significantly to:

A)    increased salaries for reporters.

B)     standardization of the news.

C)    separation of news from opinions.

D)    a professional identity for American journalists.


22.  The theory of evolution:

A)    supported traditional American beliefs about the nature of man and history.

B)     met uniform resistance from middle-class Protestant religious leaders.

C)    gained greater acceptance in rural areas than in urban areas.

D)    influenced new ways of thinking in the social sciences.


23.  According to the philosophy of pragmatism, modern society, for guidance, should primarily rely on:

A)    inherited ideals.

B)     scientific inquiry.

C)    moral principles.

D)    religious beliefs.


24.  Which of the following trends in American education did not take place in the latter nineteenth century?

A)    The spread of universal free public education.

B)     Passage by states of compulsory attendance laws.

C)    Rapid proliferation of colleges across the nation.

D)    Increased emphasis on the classical curriculum at the university level



Chapter 19


25.  A significant characteristic of American politics at the national level during the late nineteenth century was the:

A)    development of a true multiparty system.

B)     dominance of the Republican Party in popular support.

C)    dominance of the Democratic Party in popular support.

D)    nearly equal division of popular support for the Democratic and Republican parties.



26.  In the late nineteenth century, which of the following groups would least likely vote Democratic?

A)    Roman Catholics of immigrant origin

B)     Protestant farmers of the South

C)    unskilled wage earners

D)    northern blacks


27.  The most powerful institutions in national politics were:

A)    The President and Cabinet.

B)     B) The House and Senate.

C)    The courts.

D)    The political parties.


28.  Which of the following acts was passed to a considerable extent as a result of the assassination of Garfield?

A)    the Mills Tariff Act

B)     the Pendleton Civil Service Act

C)    the Sherman Antitrust Act

D)    the Dependent Pension Act


29.  Which president served two nonconsecutive terms in office?

A)    Rutherford B. Hayes

B)     Benjamin Harrison

C)    Grover Cleveland

D)    William McKinley


30.  The most significant issue in the presidential election of 1888 was:

A)    civil service reform.

B)     the Mulligan letters.

C)    free silver.

D)    the tariff.


31.  Which of the following pieces of legislation was stringently enforced by the federal courts?

A)    the Sherman Anti-Trust Act.

B)     The Interstate Commerce Act.

C)    both of these acts.

D)    neither of these acts.


32.  Which piece of legislation caused significant political damage for the Republicans in the 1890 congressional elections?

A)    the McKinley Tariff.

B)     the Pendleton Act.

C)    the Sherman Anti-Trust Act.

D)    the Wilson-Gorman Tariff Act.


33.  The so-called Granger Laws were designed to regulate:

A)    child labor.

B)     the export of farm crops.

C)    railroad and warehouse rates.

D)    minimum wages and maximum hours.


34.  What event caused the Grange to transform from a social and self-help association into an agency of political change?

A)    the Civil War

B)     the depression of 1873

C)    the assassination of Garfield

D)    the depression of 1893


35.  During the 1860s and 1870s, the Grangers carried out three of the following activities. Which is the exception?

A)    They established cooperatives.

B)     They forged a political coalition with organized labor.

C)    They supported political candidates sympathetic to the farmers' needs.

D)    They disseminated information about new scientific agricultural techniques.


36.  What did some Alliance leaders advocate that made the organization different from the Grange?

A)    a national society in which economic competition would give way to cooperation.

B)     local cooperatives designed to free farmers from dependence on the merchants who kept farmers in debt.

C)    civil service reform.

D)    all of the above.


37.  One of the most important leaders of the Southern Farmers Alliance and People's Party was:

A)    Roscoe Conkling.

B)     Marcus Hanna.

C)    Tom Watson.

D)    James G. Blaine.


38.  The Populist Party appealed primarily to which of the following constituencies?

A)    labor

B)     middle class Northern whites.

C)    African Americans

D)    small farmers in geographically isolated regions.


39.  The Populists in 1892 favored three of the following. Which is the exception?

A)    The direct election of senators.

B)     The abolition of the graduated income tax.

C)    Government ownership of railroads, telephones, and telegraphs.

D)    The establishment of "subtreasuries" that would advance loans against stored crops.


40.  Three of the following were contributory causes of the Panic of 1893. Which is the exception?

A)    The tax policies of the federal government on big business.

B)     Excessive capital investments, especially by railroads.

C)    The loss of American markets abroad due to depressed conditions in Europe.

D)    Weakened purchasing power of farmers due to depressed prices in agriculture.


41.  In order to alleviate unemployment produced by the Panic of 1893, Jacob S. Coxey proposed:

A)    a new dependent pensions bill.

B)     drafting the unemployed into the Army.

C)    creating jobs by means of government public works programs.

D)    a welfare program of unemployment compensation.


42.  The expression "Crime of '73" refers to the:

A)    discontinuance of silver coinage.

B)     adoption of a bimetallic standard.

C)    inflation produced by the unlimited coinage of silver.

D)    fixing of the ratio between silver and gold at 16 to 1.


43.  The most important issue in the 1896 presidential campaign was:

A)    the tariff.

B)     foreign policy.

C)    the civil service.

D)    the money question.


44.  The significance of the "cross of gold" speech was that:

A)    it ended the "battle of the standards."

B)     it inspired the Populists to oppose free silver.

C)    it led to William Jennings Bryan's Democratic presidential nomination.

D)    it helped persuade Congress to adopt the Gold Standard Act of 1900.


45.  The issue of free coinage of silver rapidly declined in importance among farmers after 1896 partly because:

A)    farm prices began to rise.

B)     farmers lost interest in politics.

C)    tariff rates declined and imports increased.

D)    voters became more knowledgeable about economic issues.


46.  Which of the following groups did NOT want to undo the "Crime of ‘73"?

A)    Bankers

B)     Mine Owners

C)    Inflationists

D)    Farmers


47.  How did the Populist Party try to maintain its independence from the Democrats in 1896?

A)    Running James Weaver for President

B)     Endorsing William McKinley

C)    Repudiating bimetallism

D)    Running Tom Watson for Vice-President



Chapter 20


48.  The new Manifest Destiny of the 1890s differed from traditional American expansionism in that the territories acquired in the 1890s were:

A)    not likely to become states.

B)     not contiguous with existing states or territories.

C)    not considered suitable for massive American settlement.

D)    all of the above.


49.  The text lists several factors that contributed directly or indirectly to the development of the new Manifest Destiny at the turn of the century. Which of the following is not one of them?

A)    The depression of 1893.

B)     The concept of the closing of the frontier.

C)    The experience of subjugating Indian tribes in the West.

D)    The Populist movement and other class protests.


50.  Alfred Thayer Mahan was significant to the development of American imperialism through his writings on:

A)    sea power.

B)     Social Darwinism.

C)    Christian Missions.

D)    dialectical materialism.


  As a result of the naval building program begun in the 1870s, by 1900 the U.S. Navy was:

E)     the most powerful in the world.

F)     the third most powerful in the world.

G)    the tenth most powerful in the world.

H)    actually weaker than in 1880 because of corruption in spending naval appropriations.


51.  The Pan-American Union

A)    served as a clearinghouse for distributing information to member nations.

B)     created an inter-American customs union.

C)    created arbitration procedures for hemispheric disputes.

D)    all of the above.


52.  Which of the following was not a result of increasing American influence in the Hawaiian Islands beginning in the 1830s?

A)    The native population declined significantly due to disease.

B)     Native religion was undermined by Christian missionaries.

C)    Asian immigrants were prevented from residing in Hawaii.

D)    American sugar plantations dominated the economy.



53.  In 1893, a revolution in Hawaii overthrew the government of Queen Liliuokalani. This revolution was instigated mainly by:

A)    Spanish imperialists.

B)     native inhabitants of Hawaii.

C)    Asian immigrants to Hawaii.

D)    American plantation interests.


54.  Three of the following were competitors for control of the Samoan Islands in the 1880s and 1890s. Which is the exception?

A)    Germany

B)     Great Britain

C)    Japan

D)    United States


55.  The expression "yellow journalism" refers to the newspapers that emphasized:

A)    unwavering loyalty to the Democratic Party in the South.

B)     pacifism in foreign affairs.

C)    lurid and sensational news.

D)    the dangers of Oriental immigration.


56.  Which of the following newspaper publishers were accused of using "yellow journalism" in their coverage of the trouble in Cuba in the 1890?

A)    William Randolph Hearst and Josiah Strong

B)     Josiah Strong and Valeriano Weyler

C)    Valeriano Weyler and Joseph Pulitzer

D)    Joseph Pulitzer and William Randolph Hearst


57.  The de Lôme letter had the effect of:

A)    discrediting the McKinley administration in U.S. eyes.

B)     worsening United States-Spanish relations.

C)    exposing United States imperialistic ambitions.

D)    temporarily improving United States-Spanish relations.


58.  Later evidence suggested that the sinking of the Maine was actually caused by:

A)    the Spanish navy

B)     William Randolph Hearst.

C)    an accident in one of the engine rooms.

D)    Cuban freedom fighters.


59.  Of the Americans who died in Cuba during the Spanish American War, what percentage were killed in battle?

A)    about 50%.

B)     about 25%.

C)    about 10%.

D)    about 1%.


60.  Commodore George Dewey was noteworthy to the Spanish-American War for:

A)    capturing Puerto Rico.

B)     sinking the Spanish fleet in Manila Bay.

C)    sinking the Spanish fleet in Santiago harbor.

D)    preventing Spanish reinforcements from reaching Cuba.


61.  American preparation and mobilization for the military operations against Cuba in 1898 may most accurately be described or characterized as:

A)    remarkably inefficient and incompetent.

B)     adequate, but lacking in popular enthusiasm and support.

C)    remarkably quick and efficient in spite of poor planning and leadership.

D)    highly professional, well-organized, and efficient in both planning and execution.


62.  In addition to waging military expeditions against the Spanish in Cuba and the Philippines, the United States invaded:

A)    Morocco.

B)     Barcelona.

C)    Puerto Rico.

D)    El Salvador.


63.  The Treaty of Paris of 1898, which ended the Spanish-American War, provided for Spain to transfer to the United States three of the following. Which is the exception?

A)    Guam.

B)     Virgin Islands

C)    Philippines.

D)    Puerto Rico.


64.  The most serious issue in the debate over ratification of the Treaty of Paris of 1898 was:

A)    the status of the Philippines.

B)     political rights of Puerto Rican natives.

C)    American commercial rights in Cuba.

D)    the sum of money to be paid by Spain to the United States.


65.  The Platt Amendment to the Cuban constitution:

A)    barred Cuba from making treaties with other nations.

B)     gave the U.S. the right to intervene in Cuba to protect independence, life, and property.

C)    required Cuba to permit American naval stations on its territory.

D)    all of the above.


66.  The Philippine War:

A)    was one of the shortest in American history.

B)     produced fewer American battle casualties than the Spanish-American War.

C)    became a long, vicious, and bloody guerilla war.

D)    saw the American military treating Filipino natives and prisoners of war humanely.


67.  The motive of the United States in contributing troops to the rescue of the besieged diplomats during the Boxer Rebellion was to:

A)    punish China.

B)     demonstrate American power to the Europeans.

C)    gain a foothold in China for an American sphere of influence.

D)    have a voice in the final settlement and prevent the dismemberment of China.


68.  The reforms of Elihu Root in the period between 1900 and 1903 were significant in:

A)    improving the federal bureaucracy.

B)     modernizing the United States Army.

C)    curbing monopolistic business practices.

D)    cleaning up corruption in the Navy Department.


69.  Which of the following presidential candidates was known as a leading Anti-Imperialist?

A)    William Howard Taft

B)     Theodore Roosevelt

C)    William Jennings Bryan

D)    John Hay