Study Guide for Quiz 2: The Unfinished Nation Chapters 4, 5, and 6                                        Dr. Kerns



Chapter 4


  1. Each of the following was a reason for the colonists to enjoy their membership in the British Empire in the 1750s EXCEPT:

A)    military protection from the Indians and the French

B)     political stability

C)    British subsidies for colonial industry

D)    opportunity for trade


  1. During the fifty years after the Glorious Revolution, the British policy of neglect of the colonial economy:

A)    dissipated as the kings reasserted their power in the British government.

B)     was lessened by the capabilities of royal officials in America.

C)    was sustained by some Parliamentary leaders who believed relaxation of restrictions would spur commerce.

D)    was lessened as officials in London learned more about the colonial economies.


  1. By the 1750s colonial legislatures had come to see themselves as:

A)    little parliaments.

B)     agents of the royal governor.

C)    powerless.

D)    agents for democratic reform.


  1. A conference of colonial leaders gathered in Albany, New York, in 1754 to discuss a proposal by Benjamin Franklin to:

A)    establish "one general government" for all of the colonies.

B)     negotiate a treaty with the French.

C)    expand a system of intercolonial roads.

D)    extend the operation of the colonial postal service.


  1. Both the French and the English were well aware that the battle for control of North America would be determined in part by:

A)    who had the Dutch on their side.

B)     whose king was the best military commander.

C)    which group could win the allegiance of native tribes.

D)    whose armies could best fight "Indian" fashion.


  1. The British victory in the Great War for the empire:

A)    expelled France and Spain from North America.

B)     gave England control of most the settled regions of North America.

C)    resulted in the defeat of all North American Indian tribes.

D)    resulted in less contact between Britain and America.


  1. Prior to the Great War for the empire, the Iroquois Confederacy:

A)    traded exclusively with the English.

B)     traded exclusively with the French.

C)    maintained their autonomy by avoiding a close relationship with both French and the English.

D)    traded only with the five tribes that made up the Confederacy.


  1. Which of the following did not occur during the prime ministry of William Pitt?

A)    Americans were reimbursed for supplies requisitioned in their British colonies.

B)     Colonial assemblies were in charge of recruitment in their respective colonies.

C)    The French lost the city of Quebec.

D)    Most of the fighting was done by colonial militia.


  1. For which of the following was the result of the Great War for the empire a disaster?

A)    English frontiersmen and traders.

B)     Colonial merchants.

C)    The Iroquois Confederacy.

D)    The Royal Africa Company.


  1. The English decision to reorganize the British Empire after 1763 was the result of:

A)    colonial demands for more efficient government.

B)     problems in the merchant community and their desire for regulation.

C)    colonial unrest, which the British government planned to put down before it become serious.

D)    Enormous war debts and large increases in territory


  1. George III influenced the growing strain between the colonies and Great Britain through:

A)    his alliance with the Whigs led by William Pitt.

B)     his psychological illness during the 1760s and 1770s.

C)    his willingness to defer while Parliament dictated increasingly harsh terms to the colonies.

D)    his insecure personality, which contributed to the instability of the British government during these years.


  1. In an effort to keep peace between frontiersmen and Indians and provide for a more orderly settlement of the West, the British government:

A)    forbade settlers from crossing the mountains that divided the Atlantic coast from the interior.

B)     gave Indian tribes and confederations colonial status.

C)    allowed interior settlement only if settlers bought land from the tribes.

D)    put forts in the Ohio Valley to protect settlers there.


  1. Which of the following was a consequence of the policies of the Grenville ministry?

A)    British tax revenues in the colonies increased ten times.

B)     Colonists effectively resisted and paid little tax.

C)    Many colonial merchants went out of business.

D)    Colonial assemblies assumed the responsibility for taxing their individual colonies.


  1. The Regulator movement of 1771 consisted of:

A)    Pennsylvania frontiersmen who demanded attention from the colonial government for their defense needs.

B)     farmers of the Carolina upcountry opposed to high taxes.

C)    northern merchants who refused to comply with the restrictions of the Grenville program.

D)    western farmers who protested the Proclamation of 1763.


  1. British policies after 1763:

A)    destroyed the economy of the American colonies.

B)     stripped colonial assemblies of their authority.

C)    created a deep sense of economic unease, particularly in colonial cities.

D)    actually helped the colonial economy.


  1. Colonists argued that the Stamp Act was not proper because:

A)    it affected only a few people, so the burden was not shared.

B)     the money raised would not be spent in the colonies.

C)    colonies could be taxed only by their provincial assemblies.

D)    the tax was too high.


  1. British authorities decided to repeal the Stamp Act primarily because of the:

A)    passage of the "Virginia Resolves."

B)     well-reasoned petitions of the Stamp Act Congress.

C)    intimidation tactics employed by the Sons of Liberty.

D)    economic pressure caused by a colonial boycott of English goods.


  1. Townshend believed his taxes on the colonists would not be protested because they were:

A)    "external" taxes--taxes on goods brought from overseas.

B)     not going to be strictly enforced.

C)    lower than the Stamp Act taxes.

D)    to support colonial projects.


  1. The Boston Massacre:

A)    was probably the result of panic and confusion by British soldiers.

B)     reversed the calming trend that had occurred after the repeal of the Townshend Acts.

C)    made John Adams a leader of the resistance.

D)    killed over thirty members of the resistance.


  1. Colonial "committees of correspondence" were created to:

A)    keep colonial intellectuals in contact with each other.

B)     publicize grievances against England.

C)    improve the writing skills of young gentlemen.

D)    correspond with English radicals who supported the American cause.


  1. American complaints concerning lack of representation made little sense to the English who pointed out that:

A)    over eighty percent of the population of Great Britain was entitled to vote for members of Parliament.

B)     each colony was represented by an agent and a designated member of Parliament.

C)    each member of Parliament represented the interests of the whole empire rather than a particular individual or geographical area.

D)    American participation in parliamentary discussions would bind them to unpopular decisions.


  1. Colonists felt that when the English constitution was allowed to function properly, it created the best political system because it:

A)    distributed power among the three elements of society--the monarchy, the aristocracy, and the common people.

B)     created a republican government.

C)    created a democracy.

D)    put power in the hands of those best suited to govern.


  1. The dispute over the Tea Act:

A)    led to the weakening of the colonial position by women who refused to support the boycott.

B)     derived from a doubling of the tax on tea.

C)    led to a resistance similar in scale to earlier protests.

D)    caused the implementation of the Intolerable Acts.


  1. The Coercive Acts or "Intolerable Acts":

A)    isolated Massachusetts from the other colonies.

B)     made Massachusetts a martyr in the eyes of other colonies.

C)    created no concern among any group other than merchants.

D)    increased the power of colonial assemblies.


  1. Which of the following was not a step taken by the First Continental Congress?

A)    It adopted a plan for a colonial union under British authority.

B)     It endorsed a statement of grievances.

C)    It called for military preparations.

D)    It called for a series of boycotts.


Chapter 5


  1. After Lexington and Concord:

A)    independence immediately became an American war aim.

B)     Congress rejected the "Olive Branch Petition" that was an effort at reconciliation with Britain.

C)    it took almost a year for independence to become a primary war aim.

D)    people immediately viewed independence as a war aim, but it took Congress over a year to concur.


  1. Thomas Paine's Common Sense is an important work because it:

A)    helped Americans reconcile their differences with England.

B)     persuaded Americans that no reconciliation with Britain was possible.

C)    supported the concept of the English constitution.

D)    argued that Parliament, not the King, was the enemy.


  1. Historians have long debated whether the colonial motivations for the American Revolution were:

A)    economic or ideological.

B)     economic or religious.

C)    religious or military.

D)    based on disputes between slaveowners and non-slaveowners.


  1. The Declaration of Independence stated that governments were formed to:

A)    give men an opportunity to exert power.

B)     reward loyal servants of the state.

C)    promote democracy.

D)    protect a person's life, freedom, and right to pursue happiness.


  1. After the initial surge of patriotism, American troops:

A)    came primarily from volunteers.

B)     immediately came under the control of the federal government.

C)    came from both conscription and payment of bounties.

D)    were primarily paid substitutes.


  1. Most of America's war materials came from:

A)    American manufacturers.

B)     the seizure of British forts and the surrender of British armies.

C)    the capture of supply ships by American privateers.

D)    foreign aid.


  1. Britain enjoyed all of the following advantages in the Revolution except:

A)    the greatest navy and the best-equipped army in the world.

B)     superior industrial resources.

C)    greater commitment to the conflict.

D)    a coherent structure of command.


  1. Congress financed the revolution by:

A)    selling bonds.

B)     minting gold and silver coins.

C)    borrowing from other nations.

D)    taxing the wealthy.


  1. The choice of George Washington as commander in chief was a good one because of his:

A)    knowledge of military affairs.

B)     image among the people, who trusted and respected him.

C)    successful military experience in the Great War for the empire.

D)    relaxed, informal way with his men.


  1. After a year of war, the British realized:

A)    they had a better chance of success in the South where Tory support was stronger.

B)     the war had become more than just a local phenomenon around Boston.

C)    the American invasion of Canada had taken away a substantial amount of British territory.

D)    that they could win the war by taking Boston.


  1. By the end of 1776 the American army under Washington had:

A)    won no victories, major or minor.

B)     become badly divided and scattered.

C)    retreated into western Pennsylvania.

D)    won two minor victories and remained intact.


  1. Which of the following was NOT part of the British strategy to cut the United States in two in 1777?

A)    To move forces up the Hudson from New York City.

B)     To prepare a two-pronged attack along the Mohawk and the upper Hudson.

C)    To capture Charleston.

D)    To bring an army down from Canada to meet the one coming up from New York.


  1. John Burgoyne's surrender at Saratoga:

A)    convinced the French that they should help the Americans.

B)     caused the British to consider giving up the fight.

C)    made George Washington a military hero.

D)    had little effect on the war in the long run.


  1. After 1777 the British decided to focus their efforts in the South because:

A)    there was less population there.

B)     they believed there were more Loyalists there.

C)    they thought slaves would help them.

D)    they had more Indian allies there.


  1. The treason of Benedict Arnold:

A)    shocked American forces.

B)     came as no surprise since he was not highly regarded.

C)    led to the surrender of the fort at West Point.

D)    resulted in Arnold's hanging.


  1. The British were forced to surrender at Yorktown because:

A)    French troops and a French fleet helped trap the British.

B)     Washington was able to defeat the British in the field.

C)    Americans were finally better trained than the British.

D)    the British commander underestimated the size of Washington's army.


  1. Even though the British wanted to end the war, the French were reluctant to negotiate because:

A)    they feared the Americans might take Canada.

B)     British agents were at work among the common folk of Paris.

C)    they were committed to staying in the war until Spain got Gibraltar.

D)    Spain was insisting on getting the Virgin Islands.


  1. Of all the Loyalists groups in America, the one which suffered most as a result of the Revolution was:

A)    western farmers.

B)     slaves.

C)    traders and trappers.

D)    Anglicans.


  1. Native Americans:

A)    generally fought in the war on the side of the British.

B)     generally fought in the war on the side of the Americans.

C)    generally stayed neutral in the war.

D)    saw their position improved by the results of the Revolution.


  1. White residents in South Carolina and Georgia were more restrained in their revolutionary expressions than were counterparts in other colonies because they were:

A)    primarily rice planters, unaffected by British restrictions.

B)     Anglican and loyal to the Church of England.

C)    fearful that talk of rebellion would inspire slaves to revolt.

D)    closely tied to families back in England.


  1. During the Revolution women took on new responsibilities. After the war:

A)    things generally went back to the way they were before and few concrete reforms occurred in the status of women.

B)     women were able to translate wartime gains into peacetime reforms.

C)    women were recognized and honored for their contributions with new careers.

D)    women got the right to vote in most northern colonies.


  1. In spite of rhetoric proclaiming "all men are created equal," slavery survived in America for nearly a century after the Revolution because whites:

A)    harbored racist assumptions about the natural inferiority of blacks.

B)     never considered it immoral or wrong.

C)    feared free blacks would return to Africa.

D)    refused to consider plans to compensate slaveholders for gradual emancipation of slaves.


  1. If postwar Americans agreed on nothing else, they agreed that:

A)    there should be no property qualifications to vote.

B)     states should have democratic governments.

C)    new governments should be republican.

D)    some men were born to govern and some were born to follow.


  1. Under the Articles of Confederation, the only institution of national authority was the:

A)    Supreme Court.

B)     Congress.

C)    President of the United States.

D)    Senate.


Chapter 6


  1. By 1786, even defenders of the Articles of Confederation accepted the fact that which of the following needed to be strengthened?

A)    The power to tax.

B)     The executive.

C)    The court system.

D)    The army.


  1. Which of the following was NOT a characteristic of the men who attended the Constitutional Convention in 1787?

A)    They represented the great property interests.

B)     They were relatively young.

C)    They believed in democracy.

D)    They were well-educated.


  1. The most significant division in the Constitutional Convention was between:

A)    slave and free states.

B)     large and small states.

C)    eastern and western interests.

D)    agricultural and manufacturing interests.


  1. James Madison's Virginia Plan proposed:

A)    revision and strengthening of the Articles of Confederation.

B)     larger influence within a new national government for the richer and more populous states.

C)    a unicameral national legislature with equal representation for the states.

D)    a bicameral national legislature with state representatives in both houses chosen by popular vote.


  1. The most important issue left unaddressed when the Constitutional Convention adjourned was:

A)    the question of counting slaves for representation.

B)     whether to have an executive or not.

C)    the absence of a list of individual rights.

D)    the question of the power of the national government to tax.


  1. The Constitution's most distinctive feature was its:

A)    separation of "powers" with "checks and balances."

B)     system for the direct election of the executive.

C)    lack of a national judicial system.

D)    single house legislature.


  1. The Antifederalists did all of the following EXCEPT:

A)    presented themselves as the true protectors of the principles of the Revolution.

B)     feared the potential for despotism in a strong centralized government.

C)    showed a basic faith in human nature and man's ability to wield power justly.

D)    argued that the Constitution represented the rights of the "well born" at the expense of the common people.


  1. Which of the following was not addressed by the first Congress under the new Constitution?

A)    A Bill of Rights.

B)     A federal court system.

C)    An executive department.

D)    The role of political parties in the election of a president.


  1. The number of Supreme Court justices was determined by:

A)    Article III of the Constitution.

B)     Congress

C)    the President

D)    a popular vote.


  1. To prevent an "excess of democracy" and the tyranny of mob rule, the Constitution restricted direct popular election to:

A)    the president.

B)     federal judges.

C)    senators.

D)    representatives.


  1. Which of the following was NOT a belief of Alexander Hamilton?

A)    The best leaders are those democratically elected.

B)     A stable and effective government required an elite ruling class.

C)    The new government needed the support of the wealthy and powerful.

D)    A permanent national debt was desirable.


  1. President Washington helped stabilize the western frontier by:

A)    putting down the Whiskey Rebellion.

B)     allowing existing states to incorporate additional land claims.

C)    refusing to bargain with Indian resistance leaders.

D)    relieving General "Mad Anthony" Wayne of his command.


  1. Jefferson and his followers believed the Federalists were creating a political party because they were:

A)    using their offices to to reward supporters and win allies.

B)     forming local associations to strengthen their stand in local communities.

C)    working to establish a national network of influence.

D)    doing all of the above.


  1. Which of the following was NOT a belief held by Jefferson and his followers?

A)    The ordinary farmer-citizen could, if properly educated, be trusted to govern through elected representatives.

B)     Urban people posed a danger to a republic, because they could easily become a lawless mob.

C)    The best citizen was one who tilled his own soil.

D)    Commercial activity was a danger to the republic.


  1. Under the Constitution, the status of the western Indian tribes was:

A)    not clearly defined.

B)     that of independent nations.

C)    that of conquered nations.

D)    the same as states.


  1. Although the treaty between England and the United States that John Jay negotiated in 1794 fell short of his instructions, it did:

A)    little to improve commercial relations with England.

B)     give America undisputed sovereignty over the entire Northwest.

C)    end the impressment of American soldiers.

D)    indicate that the United States and France were not going to war.


  1. In the election of 1796:

A)    Thomas Jefferson was the choice of southern Federalists.

B)     the Federalist Party united behind Adams.

C)    George Washington took an active role.

D)    the Federalist Party divided when southern Federalists refused to support Adams.

  1. Republicans pinned their hopes for a reversal of the Alien and Sedition Acts on the:

A)    Supreme Court.

B)     state legislatures.

C)    House of Representatives.

D)    Army of the United States.


  1. The Quasi War with France:

A)    was started by American impressments of French sailors.

B)     led to a series of humiliating defeats for the American navy.

C)    led to the XYZ Affair.

D)    helped the Federalists to increase their Congressional majorities


  1. Which of the following is NOT true of the campaign and election of 1800?

A)    It was one of the ugliest in American history.

B)     Parties and party organization played an important role.

C)    It underscored problems in the method of electing a president.

D)    It resulted in a clear victory for the winning candidate.


  1. The Federalists made a last gasp attempt to maintain power by:

A)    repealing the Alien and Sedition Acts.

B)     supporting Aaron Burr for President.

C)    creating new federal courts and judges.

D)    plotting a revolution to prevent the election of Jefferson.


  1. Which of the following was NOT accomplished by Pinckney’s Treaty?

A)    Spain recognized American right to navigate Mississippi River

B)     The northern boundary of Florida was fixed at the 31st parallel

C)    Spanish would prevent Florida Indians from attacking US

D)    The city of New Orleans was transferred to the US


  1. Which of the following about the Alien and Sedition Acts is NOT true?

A)    They were some of the most controversial legislation in American history

B)     They were roundly protested by the Federalists of New England

C)    They discouraged immigration and encouraged foreigners to leave

D)    They were invoked to arrest Republican newspaper editors