HST 143                                Quiz 4 Study Guide                                             Dr. Kerns


Chap 25


  1. Three of the following statements correctly describe conditions in the stock market during the year and a half preceding the Great Crash of 1929. Which is the exception?

A)     There was a widespread speculative fever.

B)      The average price of most stock increased dramatically.

C)      The daily volume of stock traded increased dramatically.

D)      Most brokers required cash payment in full for stock purchases.


  1. One of the most important causes of the Great Depression was the fact that during the 1920s:

A)     government regulation and trust busting had stifled free enterprise.

B)      there was a fundamental maldistribution of purchasing power.

C)      not enough profits were plowed back into business as new capital investment.

D)      low tariff policies had benefited foreign competitors and seriously damaged domestic industry.


  1. In much of the 1920s, European nations were able to make their war-debt payments to the United States, and Germany and Austria were able to continue reparation payments by:

A)     inflating their currencies.

B)      draining their gold reserves.

C)      expanding exports to the United States.

D)      getting new loans from the United States.


  1. The stock market crash of 1929:

A)     caused the Great Depression.

B)      was a result of the Great Depression.

C)      triggered a chain of events that led to the economic crisis.

D)      had no effect on the onset of the Depression.


  1. At the depth of the Depression in 1932, the unemployment rate in the United States was estimated to have been:

A)     50 percent.

B)      75 percent.

C)      25 percent.

D)      10 percent.


  1. The Dust Bowl:

A)     was caused solely by a particularly bad drought.

B)      was largely a result of farming practices on the Great Plains.

C)      caused the dust from the plains to blow as far as Chicago.

D)      only lasted for about a year.


  1. In the early 1930s, the term "Okies" referred to:

A)     moonshiners trying to make a living in Appalacia.

B)      oil speculators losing money in the Southwest.

C)      swamp dwellers out of the mainstream in the Deep South.

D)      dispossessed farmers fleeing the Dust Bowl.


  1. Three of the following statements accurately describe the condition of blacks during the Great Depression. Which is the exception?

A)     The migration of blacks to the North ended abruptly.

B)      Blacks suffered a higher unemployment rate than whites.

C)      Discrimination against blacks increased, particularly in competition for jobs.

D)      Local government and private relief benefits for blacks were smaller than for whites.


  1. In the 1920s, the great majority of Hispanics in California and the American Southwest originally migrated from:

A)     Cuba.

B)      Mexico.

C)      Puerto Rico.

D)      none of these, for Hispanics were specifically excluded by the immigration laws of the early 1920s.


  1. One effect of the Great Depression on women was to:

A)     Open up new opportunities for women in the professions.

B)      Strengthen the belief that a woman's place was in the home.

C)      Drive most women out of the labor force by the time the economic crisis was over.

D)      Gain increased public support for such feminist organizations as the National Woman's Party


  1. Three of the following were effects of the Great Depression on the American family. Which is the exception?

A)     The birth rate declined.

B)      The marriage rate declined.

C)      The divorce rate increased.

D)      Middle-class families as well as working-class families suffered great traumatic impact.


  1. Popular culture during the Depression era, as manifested by radio, movies, and literature, was generally characterized by:

A)     upbeat and romantic messages as a sort of escapism.

B)      appeals to prurient interests in sex and crime.

C)      a return to traditional religious values.

D)      a deep social concern to portray the human consequences of the national economic disaster.


  1. Three of the following novels manifest an implicit protest against social injustices in then-contemporary American society. Which is the exception?

A)     Erskine Caldwell's Tobacco Road (1932)

B)      Margaret Mitchell's Gone with the Wind (1936)

C)      John Steinbeck's Grapes of Wrath (1939)

D)      Richard Wright's Native Son (1940)


  1. Movie attendance during the Depression:

A)     rose throughout the decade.

B)      fell throughout the decade.

C)      rose initially but then fell as the Depression worsened.

D)      fell initially but then rose as the Depression worsened.


  1. The Popular Front:

A)     was a radio show about detectives in New York City.

B)      was a broad coalition of "antifascist" groups on the political left.

C)      was one of the most successful programs of the New Deal.

D)      was a name given to the Nazi party by the State Department.


  1. The Abraham Lincoln brigade was most closely associated with:

A)     Coxey's Army.

B)      the Bonus Army.

C)      the Spanish Civil War.

D)      veterans of the American Expeditionary Force in World War I.


  1. The tactics pursued by the American Communist Party between 1935 and 1939 were aimed at developing a broad alliance against:

A)     fascism.

B)      Franklin Delano Roosevelt.

C)      racial injustice.

D)      nonpolitical unionism.

  1. For the eight years immediately before becoming president, Herbert Hoover had been the:

A)     vice president.

B)      secretary of state.

C)      secretary of commerce.

D)      Speaker of the House of Representatives.


  1. The purpose of the Agricultural Marketing Act, proposed by Hoover even before the Great Crash of 1929, was to:

A)     keep farm prices up.

B)      impose government regulation on the commodities exchange market.

C)      establish quotas for the importation of foreign agricultural products.

D)      promote reciprocal trade agreements with foreign countries for agricultural products.


  1. Hoover's first efforts to control the Depression focused on:

A)     a recovery program for the banking industry.

B)      voluntary cooperation by business leaders in restoring the public confidence in the economy.

C)      a massive federal relief bill.

D)      all of the above.


  1. Hoover's measures to deal with the Depression included support for three of the following. Which is the exception?

A)     A large-scale federal program of direct relief to the unemployed.

B)      A system of government home-loan banks to assist mortgage holders.

C)      The Reconstruction Finance Corporation to make loans to businesses.

D)      The Hawley-Smoot Tariff to protect agriculture from foreign competition.


  1. The Reconstruction Finance Corporation was largely ineffective in promoting recovery from the Depression because:

A)     the Supreme Court declared it unconstitutional.

B)      its activities did not gain the support of President Hoover.

C)      its programs benefited primarily the small banks and family corporations.

D)      it was underfunded and overcautious in the use of the funds it did have.


  1. When it was first organized, how did the Farmers' Holiday Association seek to gain higher prices for farm products?

A)     by lobbying in Washington

B)      by withholding crops from the market

C)      by running its own candidates for state legislatures

D)      by establishing its own cooperative marketing facilities


Chap 26


  1. The New Deal did all of the following EXCEPT:

A)     construct the foundations of the federal welfare system

B)      transform the Democratic party into the dominant force in American politics for the next thirty years.

C)      preside over the birth of the modern labor movement.

D)      end the Great Depression.


  1. Much of Roosevelt's success in restoring public confidence in government might be attributed to his:

A)     consistent application of clear-cut philosophies to social and economic problems.

B)      optimistic and ebullient personality.

C)      refusal to engage in tedious and politically charged press conferences.

D)      public demonstration of how a man could overcome physical paralysis.



  1. Roosevelt's first concern as president was the:

A)     public panic caused by the bank failures.

B)      collapse of agriculture.

C)      problem of widespread unemployment.

D)      deflationary spiral that had crippled business.


  1. The Twenty-first Amendment, ratified in 1933, repealed the:

A)     progressive income tax.

B)      poll tax, literacy test, and other discriminatory voting restrictions.

C)      prohibition of the manufacture and sale of alcoholic beverages.

D)      "quota system" of immigration limitations.


  1. Initial implementation of the Agricultural Adjustment Act in 1933 was controversial because it:

A)     involved large-scale destruction of existing crops and livestock to reduce surpluses.

B)      required farmers to boost agricultural production.

C)      outlawed the practices of farm tenancy and sharecropping.

D)      favored the interests of small farmers over those of large farmers.


  1. Of greatest impact on large numbers of poor farmers was a New Deal program to:

A)     provide payments for reduced production in the interest of soil conservation.

B)      help irrigate and reclaim marginal lands for cultivation.

C)      provide loans for resettlement.

D)      make electric power available through utility cooperatives.


  1. Which of the following provisions was NOT included in the National Industrial Recovery Act of 1933?

A)     Trade association agreements on pricing and production.

B)      Loans by the national government to railroads, banks, and insurance companies.

C)      Legal protection to the right of workers to form unions and engage in collective bargaining.

D)      A major program of public works designed to pump needed funds into the economy.


  1. The Supreme Court declared the National Industrial Recovery Act unconstitutional partly because it:

A)     used an overly broad definition of interstate commerce.

B)      waived antitrust laws for cooperating businesses.

C)      granted public money to private corporations.

D)      applied only to corporations, not partnerships and sole proprietors.


  1. The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA):

A)     received strong support from the nation's utility companies.

B)      suffered as a result of the collapse of the electrical utility empire of Samuel Insull.

C)      was intended to serve as an agent for comprehensive redevelopment of the entire region.

D)      converted the Tennessee Valley into one of the most prosperous regions of the country.


  1. The Roosevelt administration instituted all of the following financial reforms except to:

A)     take the country off the gold standard.

B)      establish the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIc..

C)      transfer control over interest rates from the Federal Reserve Board to Congress.

D)      establish the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEc. to police the stock market.


  1. To provide assistance to those in need, Roosevelt and his adviser Harry Hopkins regarded which of the following as best?

A)     cash grants to states

B)      work relief

C)      a government dole for individuals

D)      private charity


  1. The relief efforts of the early New Deal were intended to:

A)     stimulate a broad recovery of the economy.

B)      be limited in scope and temporary in duration.

C)      create a permanent welfare system.

D)      apply the principles of Keynesian economics.


  1. Franklin Roosevelt's political philosophy could most accurately be described or characterized as:

A)     pragmatic.

B)      laissez-faire.

C)      doctrinaire liberal.

D)      democratic socialist.


  1. Section 7(a. of the National Industrial Recovery Act represented a significant gain for:

A)     organized labor.

B)      ethnic minorities.

C)      trade associations.

D)      the great mass of consumers.


  1. Three of the following were purposes behind the establishment of the Tennessee Valley Authority. Which is the exception?

A)     Flood control.

B)      Experimentation with regional planning and rehabilitation.

C)      The establishment of a standard of comparison for measuring private power rates.

D)      The establishment of a precedent for full government ownership and operation of all utilities.


  1. In addition to putting young men back to work, a principal purpose of the Civilian Conservation Corps was to:

A)     limit population growth.

B)      promote reforestation and land conservation.

C)      help young married couples buy homes on easy mortgage terms.

D)      provide an interracial living experience to promote harmony.


  1. The American Liberty League was dedicated to:

A)     strong conservative opposition to the New Deal.

B)      promoting civil rights for blacks and other minorities.

C)      promoting popular support for the spirit of the New Deal.

D)      a desire among intellectuals to adopt more radical solutions to the nation's economic ills.


  1. Father Coughlin, Huey Long, and Frances Townsend all had what in common?

A)     a hatred of the financial powers who were impoverishing the nation.

B)      a belief in the federal government's power to reform American society.

C)      an uwavering support of President Roosevelt.

D)      a faith in the social benefits of radical wealth redistribution.


  1. The most noticeable change in the Second New Deal was:

A)     an adoption of some of the more radical plans of Long, Coughlin, and Townsend.

B)      a willingness to openly attack corporate interests.

C)      a caution created by the Supreme Court's striking down of some of the agencies of the First New Deal.

D)      an unwillingness to place additional tax burdens on the rich.


  1. The significance of the Wagner Act to organized labor was that it:

A)     abolished the National Labor Relations Board.

B)      provided unemployment benefits for workers on strike.

C)      provided strong government protection for unions.

D)      explicitly repudiated the right of collective bargaining.


  1. The Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO) was organized on the principle that all workers in a particular industry should be included in one union. This principle is referred to as:

A)     union shop.

B)      closed shop.

C)      craft unionism.

D)      industrial unionism.


  1. Which of the following groups did not recognize the unions in their respective industries during 1936 and 1937?

A)     General Motors

B)      U.S. Steel

C)      "Little Steel"

D)      all of the above.


  1. The 1935 Social Security Act provided for three of the following. Which is the exception?

A)     retirement benefits

B)      unemployment benefits

C)      health insurance benefits

D)      benefits to dependent children of impoverished parents


  1. The Works Progress Administration did not employ which of the following groups within their own fields of work?

A)     actors.

B)      construction workers.

C)      writers.

D)      bankers.


Chap 27


  1. Which of the following best characterized American foreign policy during the 1920s and 1930s?

A)     strict isolationism

B)      cooperative internationalism

C)      limited internationalism

D)      moral internationalism


  1. The Kellogg-Briand Pact of 1928 pledged the signatory nations to:

A)     join the League of Nations.

B)      respect the Open Door policy in China.

C)      renounce war as an instrument of national policy.

D)      establish a binding regional-security military alliance with one another.


  1. The Dawes Plan:

A)     allowed the U.S to forgive German was debts from World War I.

B)      gave Germany American loans so it could pay its war debts to France and England.

C)      forced Germany to pay its reparations to the U.S. on a quicker schedule.

D)      significantly improved the economic problems in Europe.


  1. How did the Hoover administration respond to the Japanese conquest of Manchuria?

A)     It supported the Japanese action.

B)      It imposed economic sanctions on the Japanese.

C)      It refused to grant diplomatic recognition to the new Japanese territories.

D)      It ordered the Pacific fleet to stand by off the China coast.


  1. In 1933, the United States finally recognized the government of communist Russia, in part because the:

A)     United States hoped for substantial trade with Russia.

B)      United States felt it needed a new ally against Hitler.

C)      Soviet Union completely abandoned support of the Comintern.

D)      communists had established their legitimacy through free elections.


  1. Official recognition of the Soviet regime in Russia by the American government in 1933 resulted in:

A)     increased understanding and appreciation of the theories of communism by most Americans.

B)      plans by which the Soviet Union and the United States intended to contain expansion by fascist governments.

C)      significantly increased sales of American manufactured goods inside the Soviet Union.

D)      relatively little change in the mutual mistrust which had characterized Soviet-American relations in the past.


  1. With regard to Latin America, Herbert Hoover:

A)     relied on "dollar diplomacy" as William H. Taft had.

B)      returned to military intervention as Woodrow Wilson had.

C)      renounced the Monroe Doctrine and encouraged western European intervention.

D)      repudiated the Roosevelt corollary and refused to send in U.S. troops when Caribbean nations got into debt problems and political instability.


  1. The Good Neighbor policy of Franklin D. Roosevelt applied specifically to:

A)     Canada.

B)      Great Britain.

C)      Latin America.

D)      the Philippines.


  1. The Nye committee reached the conclusion that an important factor leading the United States into war in 1917 was the:

A)     threat to the balance of power in Europe.

B)      power vacuum created by the decline of Turkey.

C)      need to protect American bank loans to the Allies.

D)      need to protect American overseas colonial possessions.


  1. The Neutrality Acts of the 1930s were based on the assumption that the United States could stay out of war by:

A)     ending the Depression.

B)      freeing all American colonies.

C)      staying out of the League of Nations.

D)      banning arms sales to countries at war.


  1. Which of the following place names most readily brings to mind appeasement of the Nazis?

A)     Dunkirk

B)      Munich

C)      Stockholm

D)      Warsaw


  1. Which of the following international agreements was NOT used to support the English war effort?

A)     Destroyers for Bases

B)      Cash-Carry

C)      Dawes Plan

D)      Lend-Lease


  1. Which of the following nations did NOT sign the Five-Power Pact of 1922?

A)     England

B)      Japan

C)      Russia

D)      Italy


  1. Which of the following place names brings to mind the German-occupied government of France?

A)     Dunkirk

B)      Vichy

C)      Munich

D)      Warsaw


  1. Which of the following place names brings to mind the daring British naval evacuation of troops from the continent?

A)     Dunkirk

B)      Vichy

C)      Normandy

D)      Dunkirk


Chap 28


  1. During the first few months following American entry into World War II:

A)     national opinion was sharply divided about the war.

B)      national opinion was remarkably unified even though the war was going badly.

C)      national opinion was initially divided but soon unified by a string of impressive victories.

D)      national opinion was ambivalent and fairly uninvolved due to the so-called phony war.


  1. The Battles of the Coral Sea and Midway were significant in:

A)     saving the Philippines from being invaded.

B)      thwarting the Japanese army's drive through Burma.

C)      stemming the tide of Japanese advances in the Pacific.

D)      driving the last vestiges of American sea power from the Pacific.


  1. The first area to be liberated from Axis occupation by the Allies was:

A)     France.

B)      Sicily.

C)      the Balkans.

D)      North Africa.


  1. The Soviet Union's position regarding the American and British campaigns in North Africa and Italy was to:

A)     favor both because they tied down Axis forces.

B)      oppose both because they delayed the cross-channel invasion of France.

C)      oppose North Africa but favor Italy since it was closer to Germany.

D)      favor North Africa but oppose Italy because it was after the Stalingrad victory.


  1. With reference to World War II, the term "Holocaust" refers to:

A)     Hitler's "blitzkrieg" against Poland.

B)      Hitler's campaign to exterminate the Jews.

C)      the American nuclear destruction of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

D)      the American effort to prevent Hitler's extermination of the Jews.


  1. During the war years, the federal budget:

A)     decreased by 20%

B)      stayed the same.

C)      increased by 100%.

D)      increased by 1000%.


  1. Which region of the United States benefited most from wartime spending?

A)     Northeast

B)      Midwest

C)      Plains

D)      West


  1. Three of the following statements accurately describe conditions of organized labor during World War II. Which is the exception?

A)     Union membership increased.

B)      There were no strikes, thanks to the "no-strike" pledge.

C)      Congress gave the president power to seize a struck war plant.

D)      The Little Steel formula set a 15 percent limit on wage increases.


  1. Government efforts to raise revenue and control inflation during World War II included three of the following. Which is the exception?

A)     selling war bonds

B)      imposing direct price controls

C)      balancing the federal budget

D)      levying higher taxes on personal incomes


  1. The War Production Board:

A)     never gained as much power as the War Industries Board of World War I.

B)      caused a failure to meet the nation's critical war needs.

C)      thrived under the political and administrative savvy of Donald Nelson.

D)      controlled all purchases by the nation's armed forces during the war.


  1. Three of the following statements accurately describe or characterize black experiences during World War II. Which is the exception?

A)     Racial segregation was abolished in the military.

B)      The black migration from the rural South to industrial cities increased.

C)      Black organizations displayed greater militancy in putting forth their demands.

D)      Blacks had some success in influencing the federal government to reduce racial inequities.


  1. The two largest groups of migrants to American cities during World War II were:

A)     Japanese-Americans and African-Americans.

B)      Mexican-Americans and Southern whites.

C)      African-Americans and Mexican-Americans.

D)      Native Americans and Chinese-Americans.


  1. The famous image of "Rosie the Riveter":

A)     symbolized the erosion of some of the prejudice against women working in traditionally male jobs.

B)      symbolized a permanent change in the status of working mothers in the American economy.

C)      symbolized the continued categorization of women in jobs deemed appropriate for them by male bosses.

D)      showed how women's work was analogized to their traditional roles in the home.


  1. Which does not describe the internment of Japanese Americans during World War II?

A)     The Supreme Court upheld their evacuation from the West Coast.

B)      Reparations were finally paid to evacuees about forty years after the war.

C)      Many of the evacuees were United States citizens.

D)      Outside California, there was widespread public opposition to the internment policy.


  1. The objective of the Manhattan Project was to develop:

A)     the atomic bomb.

B)      synthetic rubber.

C)      a system of coastal defenses.

D)      a system for dispersion of civilian urban populations.



  1. Harry S. Truman came to national prominence and the vice presidency through:

A)     chairing an investigative committee that exposed waste and corruption in wartime production.

B)      leading the southern conservative wing in Congress.

C)      managing Roosevelt's renomination campaign at the Democratic convention.

D)      coordinating the planning of the D-Day invasion.


  1. In the final months of World War II in Europe, American and British forces:

A)     pushed into the heart of Germany while Soviet troops bogged down in Poland.

B)      entered Germany from the west and Soviet troops entered Germany from the east and occupied Berlin.

C)      stalled along the Rhine River just outside Germany until they linked with Soviet forces.

D)      rushed toward Berlin to gain a "knock-out punch" on Hitler before the Soviet troops could arrive in the capital city.


  1. During World War II, the Japanese word "kamikaze" referred to:

A)     atomic fallout.

B)      ritual disembowelment.

C)      the lightning speed with which the Japanese armies swept through Southeast Asia.

D)      a suicide mission in which a Japanese pilot purposely crashed his plane into an enemy ship.


  1. The Battle of Leyte Gulf:

A)     demonstrated that the Japanese fleet was still strong enough to slow the potential American invasion force.

B)      brought the Soviet Union into the Pacific war.

C)      all but destroyed Japan's ability to continue serious naval warfare.

D)      stopped Japanese advance in the central Pacific near Guam and Midway.


  1. In the weeks before the dropping of the atomic bombs on Japan, Japanese political and military leaders:

A)     were united in their determination to continue the war.

B)      were united in their decision to seek peace.

C)      were split with some wishing to seek peace and others wishing to continue the fight.

D)      offered to surrender if they could keep control of Okinawa and Korea.


  1. The key facilities for development and production of the American atomic bomb were located in:

A)     New York City and Chicago.

B)      Tennessee, Washington, and New Mexico.

C)      Wyoming and Pennsylvania.

D)      Southern California, Georgia, and Oklahoma.


  1. The two cities on which the United States dropped atomic bombs were

A)     Hiroshima and Yokohama

B)      Yokohama and Nagasaki

C)      Tokyo and Yokohama

D)      Nagasaki and Hiroshima


  1. When did the Soviet Union enter the Pacific war against Japan?

A)     in June 1941, right after Hitler attacked the Soviet Union

B)      in December 1941, right after the bombing of Pearl Harbor

C)      in February 1945, right after the Yalta Conference

D)      in August 1945, about a week before the Japanese surrendered


  1. When American soldiers returned home from the war, they found a nation that looked:

A)     largely the same as it did when they left.

B)      completely transformed by wartime rationing.

C)      completely transformed by the economic prosperity the war created.

D)      as different as the European and Asian nations they had left behind.