The Unfinished Nation: Chapter 19 From Stalemate to Crisis
Chapter 19 Main
effects of the political equilibrium of the Democratic and Republican
parties during the late nineteenth century, and the origins of this
equilibrium in differing regional and socio-cultural bases.
inability of the political system and a limited national government to
respond effectively to the nation's rapid social and economic changes,
particularly the advent of large corporations and industrial capitalism.
powerful but unsuccessful challenge mounted by the troubled agrarian
sector to the new directions of American industrial capitalism, and how
this confrontation came to a head during the crises of the 1890s and the
election of 1896.
A thorough study of Chapter 19 should enable the student to
nature of American party politics in the last third of the nineteenth
problems of political patronage in the administrations of Rutherford B.
Hayes, James A. Garfield, and Chester A. Arthur that led to the passage
of the Pendleton Act.
circumstances that permitted the Democrats to gain control of the
presidency in the elections of 1884 and 1892.
origins, purposes, and effectiveness of the Interstate Commerce Act and
the Sherman Antitrust Act.
positions of the two major parties on the tariff question, and the actual
trend of tariff legislation in the 1880s and 1890s.
rise of agrarian discontent as manifested in the Granger movement, the
Farmers' Alliances, and the Populist movement.
historical controversy surrounding the origins and character of agrarian
rise of the silver question from the "Crime of '73" through the
Gold Standard Act of 1900.
significance of the presidential campaign and election of 1896.
reasons for the decline of agrarian discontent after 1898.
Bimetallism The practice of using two metals – gold
and silver – as the basis for the dollar. The United
States practiced bimetallism throughout its
history up until 1873.
Cooperatives Business enterprises owned by members of
an organization and operated for members' benefit and profit. Farmers hoped to
avoid reliance on businessmen by forming their own cooperatives, but most of
these enterprises failed.
Dark Horse A political candidate who is not
considered a front runner and whose victory would be surprising to most
Faire The theory that the economy
functions best when it is free from governmental interference. In a
strict laissez-faire system, the government neither helps nor hinders business,
but many American businessmen who professed laissez-faire doctrines were happy
to accept government aid in the form of protective tariffs and railroad
network of government-owned warehouses advocated by the Populist Party, in
which farmers could deposit their crops. Using these crops as collateral,
growers could then borrow money from the government at low rates of interest
and wait for the price of their goods to go up before selling them.