HST 141 Dr. Kerns
The Unfinished Nation: Chapter 2 “Transplantations
Chapter 2 Main
origins, objectives, and shaping influences of England's
first settlements in the New World.
and why English colonies in the Chesapeake,
New England, and Mid-Atlantic differed from one
another in purpose and administration.
problems that arose as colonies matured and expanded, and how colonists
attempted to solve them.
impact that events in England
had on the development of colonies in British America.
A thorough study of Chapter 2 should enable the student to
differences between the Jamestown
and Plymouth colonies in terms
of objectives, types of settlers, early problems, and reasons for success.
origins of representative government, slavery, and religious toleration in
importance of Indian agricultural techniques to the survival of early
differences in origin and outlook between the two Chesapeake
colonies, Virginia and Maryland.
- The causes
and consequences of Bacon's Rebellion in 1676.
background of the Massachusetts Bay colony and its
founders, the Puritans.
conditions in Puritan Massachusetts Bay that spawned such dissenters as
Thomas Hooker, Roger Williams and Anne Hutchinson.
expansion of the original settlements and the influences of the New
World frontier on the colonists.
events contributing to the deterioration of English relationships with
Native-Americans in the Massachusetts Bay colony
reason for the lack of new English colonies in the New World
between 1632 and 1663.
origins and development of Carolina
and the colonies of the Mid-Atlantic - New York,
New Jersey, and Pennsylvania.
significance of the Caribbean colonies in the
British-American colonial system.
character of African slavery in Barbados
and the Caribbean.
continued flourishing of the Spanish empire and the impact this had on the
British-American colonial system.
practical and ideological considerations that spurred the founding of Georgia.
early economic, religious, and political factors in the colonies that
tended to produce sectional differences.
effects of the "Middle Grounds" on the development of the
political events leading up to the Glorious Revolution, and the impact it
had on the English colonies in the New World.
Antinomianism The belief that people cannot obtain
salvation through good works -- "faith alone" is all that is
required. Seventeenth-century authorities feared that antinomians would feel
that it was not necessary to work for the betterment of the community and might
even put themselves above the rules and regulations that governed society.
Backcountry Newly settled lands in the western
"interior" portion of the early colonies. Backcountry colonists often
found themselves at odds with the wealthier settlers of the coastal regions.
Covenant Essentially an agreement in which people are
united for a specific purpose. Rooted in Protestant theology, such agreements
were the basis for church governments (especially among Calvinist
congregations) and, in time, influenced civil governments as well. In this way,
the covenant concept helped establish the idea of government by the consent of
Headrights Grants of land donated to new
settlers in the Chesapeake by the Virginia Company and the Lords Baltimore
Orthodox Conforming to the accepted doctrines or
system of beliefs of a group, refusing to deviate or alter one's beliefs (for
example, orthodox Puritans).
Presidios Spanish forts. Many presidios sprang up on the Pacific coast at the
end of the eighteenth century.
Proprietary Colony A colony whose charter was
granted by the king to an individual or a group (proprietors). Although the charter might place certain restrictions
on the proprietors, in general they were free to run the colony as they
wished--appointing governors, establishing assemblies, dividing and granting
land. Because most proprietors were essentially land speculators and concerned
with profit (either from the sale of land or from quitrents), they usually
relaxed political and religious restrictions so as to attract colonists. But
even with these concessions, proprietary governments at times proved unpopular,
and opposition to them was one source of turmoil in the late seventeenth
Royal Colony A colony over which the king of England assumed control, granting it a
royal charter in place of the charter it previously held. Not an act of tyranny, as often pictured, royalization guaranteed that England's laws (and English subjects' rights) would apply to
colony and colonists. A royal governor was appointed by the king to see that
such laws were carried out, and a council, composed of prominent men of the colony
(appointed by the king, but with the advice of local leaders), was established
to advise the executive. Most important, at least to the colonists in general,
was the authorization of an elected legislature (variously known as the Commons
House of Assembly, the House of Burgesses, and the like) to pass local laws and
deal with problems particular to the colony. This legislative activity was
naturally to conform to English law and was subject to royal approval or
disallowance. In time, the council came to act as the upper house of the
legislature, while the commons functioned as the lower, an arrangement that, to
the colonists at least, strongly resembled the relationship that existed
between the House of Commons and the House of Lords in England. This system varied from colony to colony and
underwent many changes as it evolved; yet, by the end of the colonial era, most
of the British-American colonies shared its basic institutional structure.
Theocracy A society run by religious leaders, in which
the church is almost indistinguishable from the state.