The Unfinished Nation: Chapter 14 The Civil War
Chapter 14 Main Themes:
- The establishment of the Confederacy, the failure
of the final attempts at compromise, and the road to Fort Sumter.
- The social and economic mobilization of both the Union and Confederacy for war, and what that mobilization revealed
about the nature and character of each side.
- The military strategy and campaigns of the Civil
War, leading to the Union victory in April of 1865.
A thorough study of Chapter 14
should enable the student to understand:
- The reasons why all attempts to reach a
compromise in the time-honored way failed in 1860 and 1861.
- The many interpretations of the causes of the
Civil War advanced by historians.
- The ways in which the Confederate States of
America compared with the United States in manpower, natural resources,
finances, industrial potential, and public support.
- The significant nationalistic legislation enacted
by Congress once southern members were no longer a factor, including the
Homestead Act, Morrill Act, and National Bank Acts
- The step-by-step considerations involved in
President Lincoln's decision to issue the Emancipation Proclamation, and
its reception in the North, in the South, and in Europe.
- The military mobilization of the North, including
the role of women in the Sanitary Commission and the eventual adoption of
black military units, beginning with the 54th Massachusetts.
- The basic structure of the government of the
Confederate States of America, how it differed from that of the United States, and how it dealt with the vital question of
- The efforts of presidents Lincoln and Jefferson
Davis to act as commanders in chief under their respective constitutions.
- The crucial roles of sea power and international
diplomacy in securing victory for the Union cause.
- The American Civil War in context of the
worldwide movement to create large, consolidated nations.
- The military strategies adopted by both sides of
the Civil War, and the major battles that marked the course of America's
Unionists Residents of the Confederate states who
counseled against secession and who often remained loyal to the Union during the Civil War. Unionists were more common in upcountry regions of
the South, where the slave-based plantation economy was less influential than
in coastal areas of the South. Some Unionists left the South during the Civil
War, but many remained.