HST 141 Dr.
The Unfinished Nation: Chapter 1 The Meeting of Cultures
Chapter 1 Main Themes:
colonization of the Americas represented a collision of European and
Native American cultures that had been developing along completely
different lines for thousands of years.
variety of ambitions and impulses moved individuals and nations to
colonize the New World, including long-standing demographic and economic
changes, religious tensions wrought by the Protestant Reformation, and
international rivalries among the European powers.
collision of cultures in North America yielded many biological and
cultural exchanges that remade both the Old and New Worlds.
varied motives of the colonizers and their experiences prior to
immigrating worked to shape their attitudes toward Native American
cultures and helped determine the sociopolitical arrangements in the new
than in New Mexico and what would become the American Southwest, North
American native peoples were relatively unaffected by European colonization
until the arrival of the English, French, and Dutch in the seventeenth
A thorough study of Chapter 1 should enable the student to
history of Native Americans before the arrival of Europeans to the New
varied societies, populations, and cultures of Native Americans at the
time of Christopher Columbus.
economic, demographic, and political changes in Western Europe
that spurred colonization of new lands.
rise of the Spanish Empire, from Christopher Columbus to the age of
evolution of the Spanish Empire's treatment of Native American peoples.
biological and cultural exchanges between the New and Old Worlds,
including the diseases and crops brought from Europe.
African cultures from which black slaves were taken, and the early
development of the African slave trade.
economic and religious motives propelling English colonization of the New
early experience of the French and Dutch in North America.
first efforts of the English to establish a colony in the New
World, the lessons they took from their experience in Ireland,
and the reasons for their early failures.
Capitalism An economic system based on the investment
of resources (money, capital) in various enterprises in the hope of making a
Conquistadores Spanish for "conqueror."
Conquistadores, such as Hernando Cortés and Francisco Pizarro, led military
expeditions in the New World in order to claim lands and
resources for Spain
and to subjugate the Native American empires they encountered on their way.
Coureurs de Bois Adventurous French trappers and fur traders
who penetrated far into the North American wilderness and developed an
extensive trade that became one of the underpinnings of the French colonial
Demography The statistical study of human populations,
especially with reference to size, density, distribution, and vital statistics
such as sex or family size. Using computers to store, sort, and retrieve the
considerable data available to them, historians have conducted complex
demographic studies and shed new light on social life in early America.
Encomiendas The Spanish right to exact tribute and labor
from Native Americans on large tracts of land, granted by Don Juan de Onate to
favored Spaniards in what would become the American Southwest.
Feudalism A political, social, and economic system
that existed in Europe during the Middle Ages. Based on the ownership of land and
the obligations of tenant to lord, feudalism tended to fragment power and
authority. By the end of the fifteenth century, it was being replaced by
centralized governments in nation-states, but aspects of the feudal system
remained in parts of Europe for centuries.
High Church The party within the Church of England that
retained many of the Catholic ceremonies and practices that the Puritans
opposed and wished to purge from the church.
Mercantilism Economic philosophy popular in sixteenth and
seventeenth century Europe which argued that one person or nation could grow
rich only at the expense of another, and that a nation's economic health
depended, therefore, on a "favorable balance of trade" (selling as
much as possible to foreign lands while buying as little as possible from
Mestizos People of mixed Spanish and Native-American
blood, who came to numerically dominate the colonies
of the Spanish Empire.