In 1859, Charles
Darwin published On the Origin of Species. This text
would clearly indicate the path by which organisms evolve over time.
Key to the theory of evolution are the concepts of natural
selection (the development of characteristics in members of a population
which enable them to successfully compete and reproduce) and adaptation
or physiological changes in those members of a population which allows
survival during sometimes rapid and unpredicable changes in the environment).
Russell Wallace developed many of the same ideas as Darwin, and
in 1858 sent Darwin a manuscript outlining his ideas. This manuscript
prompted Darwin to complete Origin and arrange a joint presentation
between himself and Wallace at a seminar in London.