What is Biotechnology?

Biotechnology is the practical application of knowledge gained from a study of the biology of living things.

Examples of Classical Biotechnology:

1.  The use of yeast in the making of bread and alcohol.

2.  The use of bacteria and fungi in the making of cheeses.

3.  The selective breeding of plants and animals for agriculture.
 

Modern Biotechnology:

1.  requires a deep understanding of the mechanics of cell
     physiology and reproduction.

2.  involves the manipulation of nucleic acids;

    a. Deoxyriboucleic Acid (DNA)- the "master molecule" of the cell
        which stores the genetic information cell utilize in the production
        of proteins, and

    b. Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)- occuring in three distinct forms, all of
        which contribute to the ultimate construction of viable protein
        types.

                messenger RNA (mRNA)- serves as the template for
                                                       placement of amino acids
                                                       in a polypeptide chain.

                ribosomal RNA (rRNA)- a component of the ribosome
                                                     which helps regulate the enzyme
                                                     activity during protein synthesis.

                transfer RNA (tRNA)- carries amino acids to the site of
                                                  protein synthesis.