When cells are
subjected to substances
that degrade or prevent formation of the cell wall, they can still survive as L-forms if the osmotic conditions are right. Protoplasts having a single cell membrane form when the gram-positive cell wall is disrupted, while spheroplasts having both inner and outer membranes form when this occurs in gram-negatives. Acid-fast cells become L-forms when the cell wall is destroyed, leaving behind the inner membrane and outer arabinogalactan - mycolic acid layer. Though all cells loose motility, they can still produce toxins and pathogenic enzymes
that continue to cause damage to the host.