Lister (1827-1912) pioneered the use of antiseptic
surgical techniques, utilizing phenol (carbolic acid) to disinfect
surgical air, handwashing, and the draping of surgical wounds with boiled
towels to discourage microbial infection.
Nightingale (1820-1910) introduced antiseptic technique
to nursing. During the Crimean War (1854-1856) she developed
standards of hygiene for military hospitals that would carry over to her
school of nursing.
Snow (1813-1858) was the father of the science of epidemiology,
the study of the spread and prevention of infectious disease. Through
a careful mapping of East London during the cholera epidemic of 1854, he
was able to trace the disease to a single well on Broad Street that had
been contaminated by sewage.
(1749-1843) pioneered the use of vaccination
to control the spread of smallpox. Jenner's work would influence
many others, including Louis Pasteur, who developed vaccines against rabies
and other infectious diseases.
(1854-1915) pioneered the study of chemotherapy
through his meticulous study of chemotheraputic agents against microbial
infection. Ehrlich was the first to discover the concept of "selective
toxicity," meaning that a chemotheraputic agent could negatively affect
a microbe while not causing damage to the host. His work with arsenic
derivatives in 1908 led to development of compound 415 which was effective
against Trypanosoma and compound 606 (called Salvasin for "salvation
from syphilis"). He hoped to find a "magic bullet" that would be
effective against all forms of pathogens.