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You will be learning Microsoft Excel Graphics in this chapter. This lecture was prepared by students at the University of Maryland.
The objectives of this lecture are as follows:
Define Charts
Identify different types of charts
Be able to use the Chart Wizard
Understand Embedding & Chart Sheets
Be able to modify charts
Deal with Multiple Data Series
Know OLE & compound documents
Understand misuse of charts
Overall, this chapter is designed to teach you how to create charts and graphs as well as how to apply and utilize them properly in the real world.
The chapter emphasizes the need for clarity and conciseness of charts
The chapter shows the types of charts which exist and teaches you how to create some on your own
The chapter explains proper application and utilization of charts/graphs
Let’s start with the Definition of Charts. I will also explain about the use of charts and show you what goes into making one.
A chart, which will be interchangeably used in this chapter with the word graph, is a visual aid which presents data and delivers a message
You may wonder how useful are charts/graphs? They are very effective visual aides and can serve as supplements to presentations, reports and articles. They help readers understand information.
There are a few components that make the graph: a title, category labels, data points, data series, Refer to the picture.
Each component of the graph is essential. The category labels name what it is that the graph/chart show. The Data Points give the numeric values. Numerous data points comprise a single data series.
The data for the graphs is derived from the spread sheets (the process of making spreadsheet was explained in previous chapters).
Charts can be found almost anywhere. In newspapers, magazines, when you’re doing research, in your textbooks as learning aides, in scientific journals and in statistical surveys. Basically, charts are everywhere around you.
Let’s check how well you retain the information.
1)What are the descriptive entries called?
NOTE THAT FROM NOW ON THE CORRECT ANSWERS WILL APPEAR IN RED.
The correct answer for this question is a) Category Labels If needed, please go back to the slides to review this concept.

Let’s check how well you retain the information.
Answer these two questions to yourself.
1)What are the descriptive entries called?
2)What comprises the Data Series?
The correct answer is b) data points which comprises data series. If needed, please go back to the slides to review this concept.
Now that you’ve absorbed lesson 1, let’s move on to lesson 2, which deals with the types of charts which Excel is capable of creating. I will explain the advantages and disadvantages of each type. There’ll be another quiz at the end of the section, So pay attention!
There are many different types of charts, but we will concentrate on 7 types: pie, exploded pie, three dimensional pie,
column, bar, line and combination charts.
A pie chart presents information in proportions, out of a 100 or a part of a whole. The values are usually given in percentages (%).
The advantages of pie charts are as follows: They are good because of their informative nature in depicting proportional statistical information. They allow for easy comparisons.
Although the disadvantages are few, they are important if you have many categories you need to display. The pie chart can depict only up to 8 slices without confusion. Categories which represent less than 5% of the whole are not very well distinguished in the pie graphs.
There really isn’t a big difference between a pie chart and an exploded pie chart. An exploded  pie chart’s slices are separated to show more emphasis on each slice.
The advantages of the exploded pie charts include the emphasis placed on information, therefore it allows to convey the idea, or the goal much more effectively.
The fact that too much emphasis can be misleading and distracting is a small disadvantage.
A 3 dimensional pie chart is simply displayed in 3-D form. You can see the profile of it for a better visual effect!
The visual effect of the chart makes the presentation look better, more attractive. It dramatically helps emphasize the data.
However, too much of “cool” graphics may distract the reader from understanding the information which the presenter is trying to convey.
Column and Bar charts are used to present information in real numbers. Such as 20 dogs, 15 chips, 10 bicycles, etc.
Good thing about the column chart is that it shows exact quantities in real numbers, so you don’t have to convert percentages into number as with pie charts. Thus, the information is much more distinct and obvious.
However, if the category labels are too long, they may not fit completely on the x-axis without making it too crowded.  The range of the y-axis numbers and the inexactitude of bars make it difficult to determine the exact value.
Bar charts help in making the categories stand out from one another, therefore making it easier to compare each category. It allows for more space in labeling the axis.
The problem with placing category labels on the y-axis is that humans are more used to interpreting numbers on the y-axis. Therefore, it takes away the attention from the actual numbers, and may confuse the reader.
All of you have seen a line chart at some point in your life, maybe even everyday! It plots points and then connects them with a line.
The lines are continuous and that is a benefit when dealing with data derived from time. It also allows for easy comparisons between different lines.
Having multiple lines in the same chart can prove to be a bit confusing to an inexperienced interpreter. It is also difficult to plot data that is not continuous on these types of graphs.
The name of the chart practically speaks for itself. It presents two or more different types of graphs at the same time on the same plane.
It displays various sets of data at the same time, allowing for complex comparisons to be made
And it allows for different scales to be used for different data.
However, too much complicated, strange data may confuse the reader and it also makes it difficult the emphasize the main point of the graph display.
Please note that in order to convey your message effectively and efficiently it is important that you keep the graph/chart as simple as possible. It is absolutely crucial, so don’t forget to do that when you make your own graphs! Having said this, quiz yourself and see how well you remembered the information in Lesson 2.
Read the question aloud to class.
The correct answer is a) proportions. If needed, please go back to the slides to review this concept.
Read the question aloud to class.
The answer to the previous question is in red.   Explain that 1-a is wrong because column charts don’t deal with percentages.
Moving on to Lesson 3  I will teach you how to make your own graphs using the Chart Wizard. It is the easiest way to make a chart and you should be able to master the process without a problem!
Using the chart wizard is easy, just pay careful attention and you will understand! Go to your spreadsheet and Select data cells you want to graph (do so by right clicking the mouse for the 1st row and by right clicking the mouse and holding down the Alt key for the second row).
Move down the menu to Chart… and then highlight it with the movement of your mouse. Left click on the highlighted word.
You can also use the Menu bar and the colourful Chart Wizard Icon to call up the Chart Wizard. Simply click on it.
You screen should look similar to the one on the right of this slide. You should have your spreadsheet in the background and the Chart Wizard window active in the foreground.
In this example you will be creating a column chart, so Select Column where it asks you for Chart Type. You will not need to be concerned with Custom Types for this learning stage.
Then simply click the next button to move on to the next step 2.
You will be able to view the data range for which your chart is being created. You should chose your series to be displayed in ROWS for this example.
Here you will need to enter a title for the Chart, as well as for the x and y axis. Since we are making a column chart and we’re using the Row series we do not need to be concerned with the Axes/gridlines/and any of the other tabs in this step.
Click next when you’re finished to proceed to the next step.
We will be embedding our chart in the spreadsheet with our data, therefore you will select the chart to be placed “as object in sheet 1”. However, if you wanted to use the chart sheet feature and display your chart separately, you would chose “as new sheet”.
Click finish get chart.
Felicitations! You have created your first chart! The image on the right is an example of what your screen should look like. You now have a chart within your spreadsheet ready to demonstrate your message effectively.
If you’re not happy with how your chart looks or just want to experiment with different types, you can change the chart type by clicking on the drop down menu on the Chart Toolbar, where for the purposes of this example you would select the 3-d Pie chart. You should now have a 3-D pie instead of your column chart.
Lets’ review once again!
Read the question aloud to students.
Explain that embedding is not a chart creation process & that it deals with the placement of created charts (you will learn this in the next section). If needed, please go back to the slides to review this concept.
Read the question aloud to students.
Explain that icon 2-b is for creating charts in Word! If needed, please go back to the slides to review this concept.
Moving on to section 4 -  In this section you will learn the difference between embedded charts and those in  separate chart sheets.
Embedding means storing graphs within the spreadsheet where your data is located. That is precisely what we just went through in the Chart Wizard lesson. It is good b/c it displays information collectively and there is no need to switch between the data and the chart.
On the other hand, a chart sheet is a separate sheet within Excel which contains the display of the chart. It is useful when there is a lot of cumbersome data or when the chart will be needed alone, separate from the data.
Lets’ review. Read the question aloud to class.
Answer to the previous question is in red.
A) is wrong because embedding is when one places the chart within the spread sheet. If needed, please go back to the slides to review this concept.
Read the question aloud to the class.
You do not have to switch screen when embedding. If needed, please go back to the slides to review this concept.
In lesson 5 you will learn about what you can modify in a chart after it has been created.
Here are some of the things you can change to your specific preference:
Size
- Color
- Shape
- Pattern of data
- Gridlines
You can use three different things to bring in the changes:
The Chart Toolbar which pops-up along with your chart in the sheet
And the Drawing Toolbar found at the bottom of the screen.
Let’s review!
Read the question aloud to the class.
Referring back to the first slide in lesson 5 you will remember that we cannot change the data in the chart, without creating a new chart. We can only change the pattern of data  - the way our numbers are going – either by row or by column!
Read the question aloud to the class.
You can go to Chart toolbar to modify a chart. If needed, please go back to the slides to review this concept.
In this lesson I will address the creation of charts with multiple data series.  It will be very useful since most of the data is comprised of several different categories.
Although making charts with single data series is very quick and easy, real life examples often require multiple data series to be displayed. Refer to the chart and the bracket to make the point clear. Give an example such as this : imagine you have data for animals in zoos in 4 different cities. There are 5 types of animals in each city and you need to graph the info. You use multiple data series to do so!
The graphs can appear as side by side columns or they can be stacked on top of each other. Which one to use will depend on the type of message you’re trying to convey. In the case,  to visualize the profit of certain items in the store (shoes, casuals, suits), we will probably wan to use the stacked column chart to determine the difference in numbers from year to year.
The side by side column is used for comparisons. Graphs multi-series data points along the x-axis
Allows reader to look at each graph individually.
A stacked column chart is often used for comparisons. It emphasizes data by stacking categories.
It is always difficult to decide which to use : the rows or the columns grouping. Although both graph the same information, it is reversed. It again depends on your message!
If you want to emphasize which city has the most or least of a certain type of animal, you would chose the info to be emphasized by row, and you will have all the same animals grouped together in stacks. Each column would represent a different city. If you want to determine the least and greatest amount of each type of animal then you chose to graph by columns, and you will have stacks of cities in columns with each column representing a type of animal.
To graph the multiple data series, highlight ALL of the desired Data in your worksheet as shown on the picture above & follow the instructions in Lesson 3. Pay attention to rows/columns in step 2. Your chart should be similar to the lower picture.
The correct answer is a) because everything depends on the message you’re trying to convey. How many rows and columns you have, rarely determine what type of chart to use.
Read the question aloud to class.
Its true! Stack column charts emphasizes data by stacking categories. If needed, please go back to the slides to review this concept.
The following section will explain the basic differences between linking and embedding a chart to create a compound Word Document. For more detailed instruction please refer to the Windows’ Tutorial or ask me after class if you do not understand.
The linking of the chart to a document is Done by saving the chart as its own document and linking (connecting) it to a particular “destination”.  It Allows for changes to be made simultaneously to many “destinations”. It automatically applies all image file changes to the document in “destination”.  It use is preferable if graph in destinations needs frequent changing.
Embedding means storing the graph in a specific document/destination with the intention of using this document on another computer or not changing it.
The picture on the right is a refresher of what a compound document should look like. It is a very powerful tool for being an effective presenter and getting your message across neatly and clearly!
Test yourself again!
OLE stands for Object Linking and Embedding. If needed, please go back to the slides to review this concept.
False! Embedding does not allow for quick editing and changes. If needed, please go back to the slides to review this concept.
This section is simple but just as important as the previous ones. It address misuse of charts. This can occur in a few situations, the two most common being improper labeling and the addition of dissimilar quantities.
Improper labels can create havoc. If you mislabel a category it can bring confusion and destroy the message you’re trying to express. Be very careful and double check your work.
If you add dissimilar quantities (such as liters and gallons) it can damage your professional reputation as well as confuse the reader.
So, in order to avoid the above mentioned mistakes, follow these recommendations:
Include as much information as possible when titling categories
Label everything precisely