Nouns

    A noun is thing or idea.  Beauty, dogs, experience, and PGCC are all nouns. I, it, nothing, anyone and them are nouns, too.

    In this section, you can review Personal Pronouns, Possessives and Count vs. Non-count Nouns.

Personal Pronouns

    Subject        Object        Possessive    Possessive Adj.    Reflexive

        I                   me                mine                my                        myself

  he/she/it        him/her/it    his/hers/its        his/her/its    himself/herself/itself

    you                you                yours              your                      yourself

     we                  us                  ours               our                      ourselves

     they              them              theirs              their                    themselves

    you                you                yours               your                    yourselves

 

Possessives

    To make a possessive from a noun, add 's  to the end of most words, but just add '  to words that end in s.  Remember that most plurals end in s.  These can be used as both adjectives and nouns, so be careful.

    John ==> John's cat

    the student ==> the student's books

    Kansas ==> Kansas' people

    the students ==> the students' books

 

Count vs. Non-count Nouns

    Count nouns are things you can count easily.  Trees, chairs, and beans are count nouns.  You can see that they can be made into plurals.

    Non-count nouns are things that you can't count easily.  There are three important kinds of count nouns.  The first kind is the things which you can measure, but you can't count easily.  Sand, beer, beef, bread, and wood are all non-count nouns.  Another kind of non-count noun is a quality of something, such as beauty, convenience, or fun.  The third kind of non-count noun is the category name.  Time is a category name.  You can't count time.  You can count days or hours or years or months, but you can't count time.  Some other examples of these are  furniture (you can count chairs and tables, but you can't count furniture), money (you can count dollars and pounds and yen, but you can't count money), and music (you can count songs, and operas and recordings, but you can't count music).

    The most difficult part of this is that often the same word has two meanings, and one of those meanings is a count noun, but the other is a non-count noun.  Glass is one example.  Glass, the material you make windows from, is a non-count noun.  Glass, the thing you drink water from, is a count noun.  A lot of food words are like this - chicken, fish, egg, and cabbage are both count and non-count nouns, depending on the meaning.

    Students often confuse the container or counter with the noun, so be careful.  Beer is a non-count noun.  A can of beer has the count noun can, and the non-count noun beer, which acts like an adjective.  There is usually an of ______ phrase after the noun in these cases.  Other examples are a loaf of bread, a bar of soap, and a bottle of catsup.  The main nouns are  loaf, bar, and bottle, and those are count nouns.

Articles

    A, an, and the are articles.  A is used before a new noun, one that you haven't used before.  It always means only one.  I have a dog.  

    The is more difficult to use.  Use the before unique things, things that you have already talked about, or things everyone has or knows about or uses.  The president is tall.  I went to the bank yesterday.  The classroom was cold.

   Also:    I have a dog.  The dog is big and yellow.

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