Practice Questions on the Urinary System -
Acid/Base, Electrolyte, and Water Balance
- The function of the macula densa cells is to:
- Prevent water reabsorption in the ascending limb of the loop of henle
- Add bicarbonate ions to the filtrate
- Secrete renin
- Monitor filtrate [NaCl]
- Secrete glucose
- One function of ANP is to:
- Increase afferent arteriole pressure
- Increase renal blood flow
- Enhance the effects of ADH
- Inhibit the effects of aldosterone
- Increase blood volume
- If plasma [aldosterone] increases, Na+ excretion will ___________.
- If the diameter of the afferent arteriole < the diameter of the
efferent arteriole than which of the following will result?
- Decreased NFP
- Decreased glomerular BP
- Increased GFR
- Increased [Na] in the filtrate reaching the DCT
- 2 of the above
- All of the above
- The most important function of the JG apparatus is to:
- Secrete water into the filtrate
- Reabsorb Na+
- Generate bicarbonate ions to compensate for renal acidosis
- Secrete renin
- Secrete aldosterone
- From the DCT, fluid will enter the ___________________.
- In a patient who is dehydrated from vomiting and diarrhea, which is
likely to be found in higher amounts in the plasma?
- A and b
- A and c
- All of the following are normally found in the urine EXCEPT:
- Uric acid
- Damage to which of the following could result in the most
- Collecting Duct
- Peritubular capillaries
- Glomerular capillaries
- If lactic acid is injected iv, then plasma bicarbonate ion levels
will immediately ______________.
- During a sympathetic response, renin secretion will ____________.
- What is the renal mechanism to correct for respiratory alkalosis?
- As a result of the compensation in the above question, what ion
problem might develop? Why?
- Excessive amounts of glucose in the urine (greater than 1-3mg per
100mL of urine) may indicate what disorder?
- Diabetes insipidus
- Diabetes mellitus
- Bladder infection
- Urinary tract infection
- As renal afferent arteriole diameter increases, GFR...
- As renal efferent arteriole diameter increases, GFR...
- As plasma oncotic pressure increases, GFR...
- When compared to the water permeability of the descending limb of the
loop of Henle, the water permeability of the ascending limb is...
- As plasma osmotic pressure increases above normal, renal collecting
duct water permeability...
- As plasma osmotic pressure decreases below normal, plasma ADH
- Decreased GFR results in an increased renal blood flow to correct
this problem. Diagram this mechanism!
Click here for the answer.
For the next 6 questions, list the specific transport
responsible for the movement of the following substances.
- Movement of Na+ from the filtrate into the PCT cell
- Movement of Na+ from the PCT cell into the interstitial fluid
- Movement of Cl- from the filtrate into the PCT cell
- Movement of Cl- from the PCT cell into the interstitial fluid
- Movement of the amino acid glycine from the filtrate into the PCT
- Movement of glycine from the PCT cell into the interstitial fluid
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