Practice Questions on the Urinary System -
Acid/Base, Electrolyte, and Water Balance

Page 1

  1. If you took a drug that inhibited the reabsorbtion of Na+ in the PCT, you would:
    1. Have an increased urine output
    2. Have a decreased urine output
    3. Have a decreased plasma [bilirubin] and become jaundiced
    4. Have decreased absorption of fats and have grey-white feces

  2. Podocytes make up the:
    1. Visceral layer of the nephron
    2. Visceral layer of the glomerulus
    3. Visceral layer of the renal capsule
    4. Visceral layer of the Bowman's Capsule

  3. Glucose is:
    1. Filtered, reabsorbed, and secreted
    2. Filtered, and reabsorbed, but not secreted
    3. Filtered, and secreted, but not reabsorbed
    4. Filtered, and neither secreted nor reabsorbed

  4. If MAP increased from 120 mmHg to 210 mmHg, GFR would most likely ____________.
  5. Typically, as GFR increases, the [Na+] of the filtrate reaching the DCT will ______________.
  6. What would happen to the GFR if the hydrostatic pressure exerted by the fluid in the capsular space increased?
    1. GFR would increase
    2. GFR would decrease
    3. GFR would not change

  7. Place the following in the correct sequence from the initial formation of urine to its elimination from the body.
    1. Major calyx
    2. Minor calyx
    3. Nephron
    4. Urethra
    5. Ureter
    6. Collecting duct

  8. While the kidneys process about 180L of blood-derived fluids per day, the amount that actually leaves the body is:
    1. 50%, or 90L
    2. 100%, or 180L
    3. 10%, or 18L
    4. 1%, or 1.8L

  9. The ____________ artery sits on the boundary between the cortex and the medulla of the kidney.
    1. Lobar
    2. Interlobar
    3. Arcuate
    4. Segmental

  10. The fluid in the capsular space is similar to plasma except that it does not contain a significant amount of:
    1. Glucose
    2. Sodium
    3. H+
    4. Albumin

  11. True or False: Angiotensin II is a substance made by the body to lower blood pressure during stress.
  12. True or False: Glomerular filtration is an ATP-driven process.
  13. Aldosterone causes:
    1. Decreased K+ in the urine
    2. Increased Na+ in the urine
    3. Increased urine output
    4. Decreased urine output

  14. Creatinine is a:
    1. Chemical that is typically not secreted
    2. Substance typically found in greater amounts in renal arteries than in renal veins
    3. Building block for complex carbohydrates
    4. 2 of the above are correct

  15. Which of the following is not one of the 3 external coverings of the kidney?
    1. Renal capsule
    2. Adipose capsule
    3. Renal fascia
    4. Renal adventitia

  16. Consider the following statement: In untreated diabetes mellitus, the [glucose]Filtrate will be very high resulting in glucosuria.
    1. This statement is true
    2. This statement is false

  17. In humans, the thirst center is located in the:
    1. Adrenal cortex
    2. Pons
    3. Hypothalamus
    4. Medulla Oblongata
    5. Thalamus

  18. The longer the ___________________, the greater an animal's capacity to conserve water and to concentrate the solutes excreted in the urine.
  19. Hormonal control of urinary excretion primarily affects:
    1. Bowman's capsules
    2. DCTs and collecting ducts
    3. PCTs and Loops of Henle
    4. Urinary Bladder

  20. As dehydration increases, the release of ADH from the posterior pituitary will ___________________.
  21. The plasma protein concentration of a patient with untreated glomerulonephritis would be expected to be:
    1. Greater than normal
    2. Less than normal
    3. Normal

  22. Which of the following is NOT a function of atrial natriuretic peptide?
    1. It acts to decrease aldosterone release from the adrenal cortex
    2. It acts to increase urine output
    3. It acts to increase blood pressure
    4. It acts to decrease ADH release

  23. Parathyroid hormone acts to:
    1. Decrease calcium absorption in the gut
    2. Decrease calcium reabsorption in the renal tubules
    3. Increase plasma calcium levels
    4. Increase osteoblast activity

  24. 7.0 is the normal pH of the:
    1. Blood in the renal artery
    2. Blood in the testicular vein
    3. Urine
    4. Fluid within a typical cell

  25. The addition of a strong acid to the extracellular fluid would result in the increased formation of:
    1. NaHCO3-
    2. H2CO3
    3. OH-
    4. All of the above

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