Psychology Retooling Institute and Seminar for the Mid-Atlantic I



Index prism I & II


 Dr. Ann McKim
Goucher College

Dr. Valerie Nussear
Alderson-Broaddus College

Lisa Valentino
Seminole Community College

I.Overview       II.Learning Objectives     III. Content Guidelines
IV. Sample Activities and Assignments    V. Resources and References    VI. Contact Us

  I. Overview

This module introduces psychology as a scientific discipline to the student. In this module the student will learn about the different ways that psychology has been and can be defined; the historical development of the discipline; current philosophical perspectives that influence psychological research and practice; current areas of specialization in research and practice by psychologists; and common research methods used by psychologists.

II. Learning Objectives

1. Student can define psychology and differentiate academic research psychology from popular psychology and from other social sciences.

2. Student can define empiricism, introspection, structuralism, pragmatism, and functionalism and identify them in examples.

3. Student can identify Wilhelm Wundt’s, Edward Titchener’s, John Watson’s, William James’s Sigmund Freud’s, B.F. Skinner’s, and the Gestaltist’s contributions to the development of modern psychology.

4. Student can Student can list the major philosophical perspectives that predominate in psychology today, describe the approach to the study of behavior that each takes, identify psychologists associated with each perspective, and identify each perspective in examples.

5. Student can identify the areas of interest encompassed by specialties within psychology (clinical, counseling, school, educational, industrial/organizational, experimental, social, developmental, psychometric, health, sports, forensic), and differentiate basic from applied psychology.

6. Student can define "critical thinking" as it applies to psychology and list and describe different cognitive skills that are at the core of critical thinking.

7. Student can differentiate science from pseudoscience, describing and identifying what it means to be objective and systematic in psychology.

8. Student can describe the four basic research methods in psychology (naturalistic, case-history, survey, experimental), listing advantages and disadvantages of each, and identifying each from examples.

9. Given a sample experiment, student can correctly identify the experimental hypothesis, independent variable, dependent variable, extraneous variables, and correctly identify the type of experimental design used.

10. Student can define psychometric research and discuss the use of correlation coefficients in that research.

11. Student can describe the correct use and identify the misuses of correlation in psychological research.

12. Student can describe the influence of experimenter and subject expectancy effects on psychological research and describe some ways of minimizing those effects.

13. Student can define "statistics" and describe the use of statistics in evaluating psychological data.

14. Student can differentiate descriptive from inferential statistics, identify each in an example, and describe what it means when one states that the results of an experiment are statistically significant.

15. Student can identify ethical responsibilities of psychologists towards both human and non-human subjects.

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III. Content Guidelines:

Day One: Definition of Psychology and Current Subspecialties of Psychology

While most of the first class is often devoted to orienting the student to the class, it can be used to introduce definitions of psychology in a novel way that will set the tone for an interactive semester. Before beginning a discussion of the syllabus, you can use the first part of the class to get information from students that can help you introduce the topic "What is psychology?" This can be done very effectively using the student folder method developed by PRISM participant Dallas Dolan from Dundalk Community College. Each student receives a manila file folder that he/she personalizes as part of the first class and is used to distribute the syllabus, study guides, exams, communicate with the student, etc. for the remainder of the semester. To facilitate introduction of the definition of psychology, insert a blank index card inside the folder. After introducing yourself and making sure everyone is in the right course (Psychology!), ask the students to imagine that you are an alien from outer space (probably not too hard for them to imagine at this point) and announce that you need them to "Take me to your psychologist!" Ask them to describe a psychologist to an alien who has no idea what a psychologist might be. Give them about five minutes to write a few sentences describing a psychologist, then proceed to a discussion of the syllabus and personalization of their folders. When you are finished with the folder activity, ask the students to retrieve their index cards from their folders, turn the cards to the blank side and describe a scientist to an alien who has never seen one and has no idea what a scientist might be. Again, give them about five minutes to write a few sentences describing a scientist. Ask them to place the index card back in the folder and collect all the folders at the end of class. This will probably take you to the end of the first class session and will give you some "ammunition" for beginning the real content of the course in the second class.

Before the second class, go through all the index cards and list the responses made for "psychologist" and "scientist." Begin discussing "What is psychology" by reading the different types of responses that the class made when you asked them to describe a psychologist to an alien. Since most of them will probably have discussed a psychologist as "someone who helps people who have problems" you can then talk about common conceptions of what psychologists do and talk about some of the subspecialties of psychology when appropriate. Go through each type of response and comment on whether or not that description does actually describe some aspect of psychology as recognized by the discipline. After going through the descriptions of a psychologist, describe some things that psychologists do that were not mentioned by the class, stressing psychologists involved in basic research, for this is probably an area that has been neglected by most of the students. After your discussion of their responses, ask them to define psychology. If someone mentions the "science of behavior," you should then begin discussing the class’s descriptions of a scientist. If no one in the class defines psychology as the "science of behavior," then you should do so and begin discussing the class’s descriptions of a scientist. If your class is like most of my classes, there will be very little commonality between the descriptions of a psychologist and a scientist.

At this point it is useful to talk about science as a method for understanding the natural world and that psychology is the discipline that uses the scientific method to understand an important part of the natural world--the behavior of animals (people included!). The scientific method will not be introduced until a later class session, but you could begin a discussion of critical thinking and what it means to be a critical thinker as part of this discussion. If your introductory text includes a section on critical thinking, you may want to use that discussion as a starting point for explaining the importance of critical thinking and some of the elements of critical thinking. If your text does not include a section on critical thinking, you might want to take a look at Jim Bell’s excellent section on critical thinking in his handout "A Guide to Teaching Psychology." A good way to discuss critical thinking is to claim to have psychic abilities, demonstrate your "esp," and then ask the class to think critically about what they have just seen. For example this exercise suggested on the TIPS internet mailing list by Rip Pisacreta usually works pretty well. First ask the class if they know what telepathic abilities are. Generally a few students will be able to define telepathy for the rest of the class, but you can do so if no one in class can. Then ask they class if any of them think that they have telepathic abilities. No matter what the answer to this question, tell the class that psychologists now suspect that all of us have some telepathic abilities if the right "transmitter" is trying to transmit his/her thoughts to others, and tell the class that you have had extensive training as a "transmitter" and usually can successfully transmit simple thoughts to even those who think they have no telepathic abilities. Tell the class that you are thinking of a number from 1-50. It is a two digit number, and both digits are odd and not the same. So it could be 15 but not 11. Spend a minute or so with your eyes closed, "broadcasting" the number to the minds of the students in class. Then ask how many of them "received" the number 37. Some hands will go up. Then tell them that some of them may have inadvertently received the number 35 because it was your first choice. Ask them if anyone received the number 37. More hands will go up. Then ask them if they now believe in telepathic abilities. If you have a few skeptics in the audience who doubt your psychic ability, ask them to explain how you managed to "transmit" successfully to so many of their classmates. If not, reveal that you don’t have any real psychic abilities and that psychology has not established the existence of telepathic abilities and work with the class to have them develop explanations of the phenomenon they have just observed. After working with alternative explanations, tell them how the demonstration was contrived to elicit numbers similar to the 35 or 36: Given the conditions you placed on the number you would be transmitting, the only numbers that are possible are 13, 15, 17, 19, 31, 35, 37, and 39. Since you used 15 in your example to the class, you expected most of the students to choose numbers in the thirties. So it is likely that you have a 50% chance of "transmitting" to most of the students. This sort of exercise will allow you to also talk a little about chance and what kinds of proof are acceptable to psychologists.

If you do not have time in this class to devote to an exercise specifically about critical thinking, the activity described later in this module relating to the experimental method can also be used to clarify aspects of critical thinking and encourage it in your students.

After the class has been introduced to science as a way of thinking objectively about the natural world, you may find this a good time to begin a discussion of the history of psychology (since the study of behavior has not always been a scientific study and psychologists have not always agreed upon what behaviors should be studied) and current perspectives (see content contributed by Ann McKim); or to begin a more systematic look at subspecialties in psychology. For current subspecialties of psychology it is useful to provide a handout or use an overhead transparency listing those subspecialties that you would like to discuss in class, being sure to point out the large number of Divisions of APA that represent different "subfields" of psychology. A very good outline is that developed by Randal Ernst’s for his content outline prepared for the TOPSS publication "An Introduction to the Field of Psychology."

As you talk about each of the different subspecialties of psychology, ask the class to come up with a specific question that each of the different psychologists might want to answer in his/her work as a psychologist. When you have finished discussing the different subfields that you have listed, ask the class to think of some questions about behavior that you haven’t mentioned and help them decide which "type" of psychologist would be most likely to investigate that question. If you are lucky, someone will ask a question or mention an aspect of behavior that involves one of the subfields that you haven’t listed so that you can then introduce other subspecialties and really help the class appreciate the diversity of modern psychology. Be sure to point out areas of overlap in different subfields when appropriate for the questions/comments that the students have made.

Day Two:History of Psychology

Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) is usually considered the father of modern scientific psychology.

In 1879, Wundt established the first research laboratory in psychology, in Leipzig, Germany. Topics studied in this laboratory included introspection (study of the elements of consciousness), psychophysical measurement, and reaction time.
There were several schools of psychology which were influential in earlier decades of this century which are not dominant today. Three of these were Structuralism, Functionalism, and Gestalt. Structuralism was an historic approach that emphasized the necessity to analyze the structure or the basic components of consciousness. Edward Tichener, a student of Wundt, was instrumental in developing this approach. This school strongly believed in introspection, looking into one’s own consciousness, to investigate conscious awareness.

Functionalism was a contrasting historic approach which held that it was important to analyze the function or purpose of consciousness. William James was an important force in this school of psychology.

Gestalt psychology was an historic school of psychology developed by Max Wertheimer, Wolfgang Kohler, Kurt Koffka, Kurt Lewin and others. Gestalt psychologists studied and described many elements of perception. An important principle was that the whole is different from the sum of its parts (e.g., if there are small dots which are arranged in a circle, the perception is a circle, not the individual dots which make up the circle). Although this school of psychology is no longer a major force in psychology, it is often considered one of the bases for modern cognitive psychology.

G. Stanley Hall established the first research laboratory in psychology in the U.S., at Johns Hopkins University, in 1883. He started the first psychology journal in the U.S. in 1887. This journal, American Journal of Psychology, is still published today. Hall was elected the first president of the American Psychological Association which was begun in 1892. Hall was very active in conducting research, especially on the topic of adolescent development.

Current Perspectives in Psychology There are usually considered to be five major approaches or perspectives to psychology. In historical sequence, the five perspectives were 1) Psychoanalytic 2) Behavioral 3) Humanistic 4) Cognitive 5) Biological (Physiological). Each approach was dominant at a certain period in history during this century in the U.S. and all five are still important forces today. In terms of quantitiy of research and research funding, the biological approach is dominant at present but all the other four approaches have their adherents and their contributions to the understanding of modern psychology.

Psychoanalytic Perspective This approach rests on the foundation of Sigmund Freud’s work which has been further developed and changed by Carl Jung, Alfred Adler, Anna Freud, Erik Erikson, Erich Fromm, Karen Horney, and others.

Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) of Vienna, Austria, started to develop his theories in the 1890s and continued to amplify and expand his work until his death. Major contributions of Freud include theories of personality (tri-partite theory of id-ego-superego; pychosexual developmental theory), therapy (psychoanalysis), description processes that occur during therapy (e.g., resistance, transference), emphasis on the unconscious and on repression, emphasis on sex and aggression, focus on childhood, description and analysis of emotional disorders, parapraxes (Freudian slips), dream interpretation, and defense mechanisms. Many of Freud’s cases have become well-known (e.g., Dora, Wolf Man, Rat Man). Freud was much criticized for his emphasis on sex and for other controversial concepts (e.g., oedipus complex, penis envy). Freudian theory has often been criticized for not being "scientific" and many of his important concepts are not testable by scientific research.

Carl Jung, a Swiss psychologist, was much influenced by Freud. He developed analytical psychology and is known for the following contributions: Collective unconscious, archetypes, dream interpretation, extraversion/introversion.

Alfred Adler, of Vienna, Austria who in adulthood moved to New York City, was also much influenced by Freud. He developed individual psychology and is known for the following contributions: Inferiority complex, striving for superiority, and compensation. Most psychologists who followed Freud and were psychoanalytic in orientation placed less emphasis on sex and more emphasis on conscious forces in personality than did Freud.

Behavioral Perspective This approach, beginning in the first decade of this century, emphasizes research on directly observable behaviors, scientific procedure, research in laboratories, research with animals. This approach studied many of the principles of learning, especially classical conditioning and operant (instrumental) learning. This perspective emphasized stimulus-response units of behavior.

Ivan Pavlov had a laboratory in Moscow, Russia and conducted research on classical conditioning, using dogs as subjects, from 1902 until his death in 1936.

John B. Watson, a psychologist in Johns Hopkins University, first described the principles of behaviorism in an article in 1913. Watson and Rosalie Rayner conducted well-known and, by modern standards, unethical research on the infant, Little Albert, demonstrating that fears could be classically conditioned in humans.

B. F. Skinner (1904-1990) was a strong proponent of the behavioral approach. Starting in the 1940s, Skinner’s conducted research on operant learning at Harvard University, using rats and pigeons as subjects. Skinner was very influential in making the behavioral approach a dominant force in the U.S. during much of this century.

The behavioral approach has been criticized for its neglect of cognitive and motivational factors of learning.

Humanistic Perspective The humanistic perspective, beginning to be a major force in the 1950s, emphasizes the study of the whole human, especially forces that promote growth and self-understanding within the individual. It de-emphasized the scientific method and laboratory research.

Carl Rogers developed self psychology and client-centered (also known as non-directive and person-centered) therapy. He was optimistic that humans have the capacity to grow and flourish.

Abraham Maslow developed the hierarchy of needs (needs are arranged in a pyramid. He believed that humans are able to reach great heights in their life when they are fulfilled--a concept he called self-actualization.

The humanistic approach has been criticized for eschewing scientific method and procedures.

Cognitive Perspective

The Cognitive approach, which began to be a major approach in the 1960s, focuses on such mental processes as memory, thinking, and language and uses a variety of research procedures, including experimental laboratory research.

Jean Piaget (1896-1980) was a Swiss psychologist who developed a developmental stage theory of cognition in children. His theory has been useful to parents, teachers and educational psychologists.

Noam Chomsky conducted research on the development of language in children.

George Miller was instrumental in discovering important attributes of memory.

Richard Lazarus applied cognitive theory to stress and coping.

Biological Perspective The biological perspective, especially dominant in the 1980s and 1990s, studies the relationship of the brain and behavior as well as heredity. This approach utilizes advanced technology in the laboratories and there in a team approach to conducting research.

Roger Sperry, Michael Gazzaniga and others conducted research on split-brain patients, starting in the 1950s, research which investigated important principles of brain organization, including specializations of the two hemispheres.

Day Three: Science and Research Methodology:

I. Characteristics of Science
    A. What Science is
        1. A method of "knowing"
        2. Systematic
        3. Public
        4. Uses Principle of Falsification--scientitists attempt to rule out, rather than confirm
        5. Tentative
        6. Subject to public scrutiny
        7. Empirically based
        8. Verifiable (replicable, reliable and valid)
        9. Cumulative--it relies on foundations of previous studies and histories,
            it builds on theoretical structures and tests them empirically
        10. Examines solvable problems
    B. What Science is NOT
        1. Absolute
        2. A collection of facts
        3. Always correct
        4. Always conducted in the "ideal method"--serendipity is a key component
        5. Always conducted with perfect objectivity--is not value free
        6. Does not attempt to "prove" things--the purpose of science is not to give ultimate explanations
    C. Goals of Science
        1. Description-What does it look like? What are its characteristics or properties?
        2. Prediction-Can I predict one variable by knowing another?
        3. Explanation- What causes it to occur?
        4. Modification/Control-Can I stop it from occurring? Can I change the outcome?
II. Steps of Scientific Method
    A. Identification of the problem
        1. Use of Literature Reviews to develop Research hypotheses
        2. Development of the Research Hypothesis
            a. Working Hypotheses versus Null Hypothesis
        3. Characteristics of a good Hypothesis
           a. Hypothesis should be stated in a Clear and Concise Form using Operational definitions
           b. Hypothesis should address a relevant problem
           c. Hypothesis should be Testable
    B. Design of the Research Study
        1. Types of Research Studies
           a. Descriptive Research
                1. Involves measurement not manipulation
                2. Involves research on groups
                3. Usefulness/Limitations
                    a. Limited generalizability
                    b. Allows for description
           b. Case Study Research
                1. Involves measurement not manipulation
                2. Involves a detail examination of a single person
                3. Usefulness/Limitations
                    a. Limited generalizability
                    b. Allows for description of a unique phenomena
                    c. Correlational Research
                        1. Involves simultaneous measurement of two variables
                        2. Usefulness/Limitations
                            a. Correlation Does NOT imply causation
                            b. Allows for identification of possible relationships
                            c. Characteristics of Experimental Research
                                1. Involves manipulation and measurement of variables
                                    a. Independent versus dependent variable
                                    b. Control versus Treatment Group
                                2. Usefulness/Limitations
                                    a. Allows for examination of cause and effect relationships
                                    b. Confounding variables
        2. Data Collection techniques (Types of measurement)
            a. Observational Methods (subjects behavior is watched and recorded)
                1. Advantages
                    a. behavior has publicly occurred
                2. Disadvantages
                    a. Experimenter bias
                    b. Experimenter effect
            b. Self-Report (subjects tell the researcher)
                1. Advantages
                    a. usually quick and easy to obtain
                2. Disadvantages
                    a. subject may lie
        3. Settings in which research is conducted
            a. Laboratory (artificial)
                1. Advantages
                    a. Control
                2. Disadvantages
                    a. False environment may lead to false behavior
            b. Naturalistic or Field Settings (real world)
                1. Advantages
                    a. Behavior is measured in real world setting
                2. Disadvantages
                    a. Lack of Control
                    b. Intrusion of extraneous or confounding variables
    C. Collection of the data
        1. Characteristics of Good scientific data
            a. public
            b. overt
            c. repeatable
    D. Summarization of the Data
        1. Correlational Statistics
            a. scatter plots
            b. Correlation coefficient
                1. Value = strength of predictability
                2. Sign = direction of the relationship
                    a. negative sign = inverse relationship
                    b. positive sign = direct relationship
        2. Descriptive Statistics (descriptive and experimental research)
            a. Measures of Central Tendency
                1. Mode
                2. Median
                3. Mean
            b. Measures of dispersion
                1. Range
                2. Variance
                3. Standard Deviation
    E. Use of Inferential Statistics
        1. Examples of Types of Inferential tests
            a. T-tests, U-tests, F-tests (ANOVA)
        2. Definition of statistical significance
    F. Reaching research Conclusions
    G. Publication/Communication of Research Findings
        1. Scientific Meetings
        2. Journal Articles
            a. Peer Review

III. Ethical Considerations in Research
    A. Human Subjects
        1. Informed Consent
    B. Animal Subjects
        1. Humane Treatment
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IV. Sample Activities and Assignments

Day One

A. What is psychology and subfields of psychology: to emphasize the broad scope of psychology, create a handout listing 30 different occupations. Spend some class time pointing out to the students how some aspect of the first five occupations on your list would be of interest to a psychologist and what type of psychologist would likely be interested in the aspect that you have mentioned. For example, a sales clerk has to be persuasive to sell her product and social psychologists are interested in persuasion. As an in-class activity or out-of-class assignment, ask the students to do the same thing for the remaining 25 occupations.

B. Critical thinking and research methods (in-class activity): instead of just talking about the experimental method, involve the class in an experiment. For example you might hypothesize that students who take notes while listening to a lecture actually learn more than students who just listen to a lecture a don’t take notes. Choose a topic with which the students should be unfamiliar (i.e., the structure and function of the neuron) and deliver a ten minute lecture on that topic; or simply read aloud a magazine article on an unfamiliar topic. Divide the class in a non-random way (physical halves of the room is a good way), and instruct one half of the class to just listen to the lecture, while the other half the class is instructed to take detailed notes as they hear the lecture. Upon conclusion of the lecture, distribute a 20 point multiple choice quiz to the students testing lecture content and have them take the quiz immediately. (Be sure that you have provided the students with a way to indicate whether they were note-takers or just listeners). Collect the quizzes, and in the following class session, provide them with the results of the "experiment." This exercise will allow you to discuss many aspects of experimentation and research methods. You can talk about how the hypothesis could have been more precisely formulated; operational definitions of "learning"; identifying independent, dependent, and extraneous variables; statistical analysis of research results; why it is important to randomly select subjects; etc. No matter what your results are, you can ask them whether or not the "experiment" convinced them of the truth/falsity of the hypothesis (and can even talk about falsification vs. verification) and can work together to decide how the experiment could have been better conducted. You can also include a discussion of ethics in research since none of the "subjects" in this experiment volunteered to participate. This exercise really seems to involve the class and makes the concepts associated with experimentation much more real to them.

C. Critical thinking and research methods (out-of-class assignment): If you do not have time in class to perform an experiment, try an assignment that asks the student to treat advertisements as if they were experiments. For example, a TV commercial claims that Crest toothpaste reduces cavities better than Colgate toothpaste. In this situation, the experimental hypothesis is that Crest reduces cavities better than Colgate; the independent variable is the brand of toothpaste one uses; the dependent variable is the number of cavities that people who use either of the two toothpastes gets; and some extraneous variables could be the number of times that a person brushes his teeth each day; the amount of sugar in a person’s diet; a person’s toothbrushing method; or even the acidity of the saliva in a person’s mouth. Have the students choose 2 or 3 different newspaper, magazine, radio or TV ads that make a claim about product performance or compare the performance of different products and for each ad state the experimental hypothesis, the independent variable, the dependent variable, and list some extraneous variables that might affect the dependent variable. You can have the students describe the radio or TV ads and attach a clipping of newspaper or magazine ads so that you can accurately grade this assignment.

Day Two:

A.  Crossword Puzzle: Historical and Current Perspectives of Psychology. This can be either an individual or small-group activity (see attached crossword puzzle).

B.  Have students write a short essay on how each of the five perspectives would approach one of the following topics: aggression, dreams, love, depression. This can be either an individual or group activity. An alternative activity would be to have 5 students in each group, each student taking the role of one of the five perspectives, and have the group discuss one of the topics.

C.  Have students make an historical time-line of political and social events from 1900 to the present. Have students relate the historical environment to the rise and dominance of the five perspectives.

D.  Have students complete the following chart using their textbook and their lecture notes.

Psychologists Main Points Perspective Criticisms












Day Three:

 In Class Activities:

A.  After a brief introduction to the concepts have students work in small groups to identify the type of research, research setting and data collection methods used in descriptions of hypothetical research studies. This can also be done in asking students to identify independent and dependent variables and control and treatment groups in sample experimental studies.

B.  Have small groups of students design a descriptive, Correlational and experimental study on the same problem and then have other groups critique the studies

C.  Use Riddle solving in a 20 question like game to introduce the process of Scientific thinking. This exercise take approximately 2025 minutes depending on how long it takes your students to solve the riddles and how many you use. (See 1990 article by Hatcher in Teaching of Psychology, 17, 123-124)

D.  To Introduce Popper’s concept of the principle of falsification I use an exercise in which I play "god", or at least the "all knowing supervisor of the universe" and place words on the chalk board. I tell the students that it is their job as "mere mortals" to figure out why those specific words appear, in other words they have to try to identify the rule that "god" used in placing those words on the board. They then develop hypotheses and a method for testing them. The method generally consists of them trying to place additional words that attempt to confirm their hypothesis. I let them do this for a while and soon they realize that they are not making any progress. I then suggest that rather then attempt to confirm, they attempt to show that one or more of the hypotheses are incorrect. This allows them to begin to narrow down the hypotheses. (I got this exercise from an article that in Physics 13 News, September 1993 page 3-4. It originally appeared in The Iowa Teachers Journal vol 29 issue # 3 winter 1992-93.)

Out-side of Class Assignments:

A.  To allow for a greater understanding of the importance of archival research and the need for communication of research findings have students complete a library assignment using various archival research tools (Psychological Abstracts or PsychLit, Social Science Citation Index along with Internet search tools)

B.  To develop an appreciation of the differences between primary source literature and secondary source literature have students read journal and newspaper/magazine articles describing the same research. Have the student write a comparison/contrast paper on the differences of the two sources. (See TOP for an example of an exercise like this using Simon LeVay’s 199 Scientific American Article on the Hereditary Nature of Homosexuality and an article that appeared in USA Today describing the results of the same study)

C.  In-class develop a short survey on a topic of interest to the class (Does the amount of time spent working/watching television/studying.... affect grades/happiness...... Have the students administer the survey to a small number of friends. Then have them work in small groups and calculate the descriptive statistics on the data. This then can open numerous possible discussions.

D.  To develop a better appreciation of the Peer-review Process as it is used (and help students improve their writing ) have teams of student review and evaluate drafts of student papers prior to having them turned in for assessment.
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Index prism I & II

V. Resources and References

Adler, A. (1917). Study of organ inferiority and its psychical compensation. New York: Nervous and Mental Diseases Publishing Co.

American Psychological Association. (1995). Publication Manual of the American psychological Association 4 th Ed Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Bell, J. A Guide to Teaching Psychology.

Benjamin, Ludy and Lowman Kathleen (1981). Activities Handbook for the Teaching of Psychology Vol 1 . Washington DC: American Psychological Association

Carey, Stephen. (1998). A Beginners Guide to the Scientific Method. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Co.

Chomsky, N. (1965). Aspects of the theory of syntax. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Ernst, R.A. An Introduction to the Field of Psychology: A four-unit plan for APA teachers of psychology in secondary schools. A TOPSS publication.

Freud, S. (1900). The interpretation of dreams. In J. Strachey (Ed.) The standard edition of the complete psychological works of Sigmund Freud (Vol. 6). London: Hogarth.

Gazzaniga, M. S. 1970). The bisected brain. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.

Hall, G. S. (1904). Adolescence. New York: Appleton.

Hock, Roger. (1995). Forty Studies that Changed Psychology: Explorations into the History of Psychological research 2nd Edition. Englewood Cliff, NJ: Prentice Hall

James, W. (1890). The principles of psychology. New York: Holt.

Jung, C. G. (!917/1953). On the psychology of the unconscious. In H. Read, M. Fordham, & G. Adler (Eds.), Collected works of C. G. Jung (Vol. 7). Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Lazarus, R. S. (1966). Psychological stress and the coping process. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Maslow, A. H. (1954). Motivation and personality. New York: Harper & Row.

Makosky, Vivian, Sileo, Chi Chi, Whittemore, Linda Landry, Christine and Skutley Mary. (1990). Activities Handbook for the Teaching of Psychology Vols 2 and 3. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

McBurney, Donald. (1996). How to Think Like a Psychologist: Critical Thinking in Psychology. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

McCain, Garvin and Segal, Erwin. (1988). The Game of Science, 5th Ed. Pacific grove CA: Brooks/Cole Publishing Company.

Miller, G. A. (1956). The magical number seven, plus or minus two: Some limits on our capacity for processing information. Psychological Review, 63, 81-97.

Piaget, J. (1952). The origins of intelligence in children. New York: International Universities Press.

Pisacreta, R. via the TIPS internet computer mailing list.

Reed, Jeffrey and Baxter, Pam. (1992) Library Use: A Handbook for Psychology, 2nd Ed. Washington, DC: American psychological Association.

Rivard, Joseph. (1997) Quick Guide to the Internet for Psychology. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.

Rogers, C. R. (1951). Client-centered therapy. Cambridge, MA: The Riverside Press.

Salkind, Neil. (1991). Exploring Research. New York, New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.

Skinner, B. F. (1938). The behavior of organisms. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.

Sperry, R. W. (1982). Some effects of disconnecting the cerebral hemispheres. Science, 217, 1223-1226, 1250

Teaching of Psychology. The Official Journal on the Teaching of Psychology, Published by the American Psychological Association

Watson, J. B. (1913). Psychology as the behaviorist views it. Psychological Review, 20, 158-177.

Weiten, W. (1998). Psychology: Themes and variations (4th ed.). Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.

Wundt, W. (1874/1904). Principles of physiological psychology. Leipzig: Engelmann.

Instructors manual for Introductory texts available from publishers.


The National Institute for the Teaching of Psychology sponsored by the University Of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, The University of South Florida and The American Psychological Society . Conference home page address:

Regional Teaching Conferences

APS Preconference Workshop on Teaching of Psychology.

Index prism I & II

This Module was contributed by:

Dr. Ann McKim
Department of Psychology
Goucher College
1021 Dulaney Valley Road
Towson, Maryland 21204
phone: 410-337-6380
fax: 410-337-6408

  Dr. Valerie Nussear
Department of Psychology
Alderson-Broaddus College
Box 1397
Philippi, West Virginia 26416
fax: 304-457-6367

Lisa Valentino
Department of Social Science
Seminole Community College
100 Weldon Blvd.
Sanford, Florida 32773
Phone: 407-328-2089
fax: 407-328-2419                                                                                                                              Top of Page

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